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Sept 25 Lec 3.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

Sept 25, Lec 3 Neurons and Glia • Neuron membrane = separates intra and extra cellular fluid = bi-layer composed mainly of phospholipids + other lipids + studded with proteins and other large molecules • Neural cytoskeleton = provides structural support for neuron (similar to bones of body). 3 fiber types compose it: o All transport molecules, organelles, along them either back to cell body (retrograde transport) or to terminal body (anteriograde transport) and can move things in both directions. Main difference between them is their sizes. o Microtubule: fairly large. Tau proteins connect them and hold them in place.  If the Tau phosphorylates (extra phosphate attaches), they unwravel  neurofibrillary tangles the microtubule separates and collapses  no transport  neuronal death. • Ex. Dementia. The tangles are a hallmark of Alzhemier’s o Neurofilament o Microfilament • At the end of axon = axon terminals where it does branch off • If we look at a specific part of the axon where there is no myelin: o Called a gap, a node of renvier o Ion channels that allows passive movement (selectively permeable) of ions  to diffuse down concn gradient between intra and extra cellular fluids  does not require additional energy o ion pumps = actively moves ions across concn gradients, even actually creates the ion concn gradients  requires energy • dendritic spines = most common space to receive info (input) from other neurons o dendrites vary greatly in their appearance and can be quantified, and also what the different types of spines are o will be the postsynaptic o there’s a diff between types of spines in normal vs. infants with mental retardation = longer, thinner, more with bulbous endings, more immature spines. With some forms of retardation, there’s even an increase in number of dendritic spines • axons = actually carry the neural messages (output), usually covered in myelin o is the presynaptic axon terminal • synapses = is USUALLY between an axon terminal and a dendritic spine • structural classification of neurons: o unipolar: single branch extending from soma o bipolar: 2 branches (one axon, one dendrite) o multipolar: many branches, usually one axon and many dendrites • size of neuron does not relate to size of animal • functional classification of neurons: o motor: transmit commands from CNS directly to muscles and glands o sensory: receive info from world o inter: bridges sensory and motor. Most neurons are this. • 4 Types of Glia: o Roughly 10:1 glial: neurons, but this is disputed o Astrocyte:
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