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Ashley Waggoner

Mnemonics Handout Nature and nurture are inextricably entwined! Nature (Genes) and nurture (Social context) interact to affect human behavior Neuron structure and communication The nervous system is the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry (50 million nerve cells) 1. CNS Central nervous system 2. PNS Peripheral nervous system a. -Somatic nervous (Outside) b. -Autonomic nervous (Inside) i. -Sympathetic ii. -Parasympathetic Neurons are the basic unit of NS Operate through electrical impulses Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals 3 basic type of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons (afferent: From 2. Motor neurons (efferent) 3. Interneurons (Between sensory and motor) 4. (SAME) Sensory Afferent Motor Efferent Neuron structure: 1. Dendrites: Get messages from other neurons surrounding it 2. Cell body: Take all the information and find out what to do with this information 3. Axon: Transport 4. Terminal buttons: Pass chemical signal to synapse They receive from all neurons and send to many other neurons When do neurons fire? Excitatory signal: Increase the likelihood that the neuron will fire Inhibitory signals: Decrease the likelihood that the neurons will fire These are determine by polarization of the cell Neurons fire (generate an action potential) All or none principle: A neuron fires with the same potency each time (it either fires or does not fire); but how frequently the neurons fires can vary Action potential: The neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemical from the terminal Ion channel: Sodium channel can only be pass by sodium and potassium can only pass by potassium in 3:2 ratio Polarization: Only let potassium into cell, and pump sodium ion out (more sodium outside than inside making it negative) Boy NA Girl K Action Potential: Boy go in and girl all freak out and go out Repolarization: Let the girl back in and little boy inside Neurotransmitters 1. They are chemical substance that carry signal from one neurons to another 2. Are stored in vesicles (small packages) inside the terminal buttons 3. Action potentials cause the vesicles to fuse to the presynaptic membrane (Membrane of the neuron that is sending the signal) and release their contents into the synapse, where they are received by postsynaptic receptor 4. *Neurotransmitter can only hold by one kind of receptor like keys and lock Types of Neurotransmitter: 1. Acetylcholine: Motor between neurse and muscles(stop them from working) 2. Epinephrine: Response for energy 3. Norepinephrine 4. Serotonin 5. Dopamine (Reward system of brain) 6. GABA How drugs work 1. Agonists : Enhance neurotransmitters actions by a. Increasing the release of neurotransmitters b. Blocking the re-uptake of neurotransmitters (so they sit out there) c. Mimicking a neurotransmitter (& activating a postsynaptic receptor) d. Cocaine, methamphetamine (Increase the release of dopamine) (Prevent the re up-take) 2. Antagonist: Inhibit neurotransmitters actions by a. Blocking the release of neurotransmitters b. Destroying neurotransmitters in the synapse c. Mimicking a neurotransmitter (& blocking neurotransmitter binding) d. Beta-blockers, botox (butolinum toxin) Brain Structure Size of the brain doesn’t really matter Human only use 10% of their brain (Myth and false) 1 : 50, largest in all mammal (Body weight to brain) Brain Stem: Survival (Most basic thing) (Key) - Controls life sustaining function of the autonomic nervous system
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