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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Gillian Rowe

PSY220LECTURE 2Chapter 2 Frequency Distributions Frequency Distribution BasicsAfter collecting data first task for a researcher is to organize and simplify the data so that it is possible to get a general overview of the results goal of descriptive statistical techniques One method for simplifying and organizing data is to construct a frequency distributionA frequency distribution is an organized tabulation showing exactly how many individuals are located in each category on the scale of measurement A frequency distribution presents an organized picture of the entire set of scores and it shows where each individual is located relative to other in the distribution Frequency Distribution TablesA frequency distribution table consists of at least two columnsone listing categories on the scale of measurement X and another for frequency fwithout skipping any In the X column values are listed from the highest to lowest For the frequency column tallies are determined for each value how often each X value occurs in the data set these tallies are the frequencies for each X valueThe sum of the frequencies should equal N total number of people in the study rd 3 column can be used for proportion p pfNthe sum of the p column should equal 100A fourth column can display the percentage of the distribution corresponding to each X value The percentage is found by multiplying p by 100 The sum of this column is 100Fifth column may be created for cumulative percentRegular Frequency Distribution When all the individual categories X values listedcalled a regular or simple frequency distributionevery single score is shown you know the exact scores of everyoneSummarizes sets of data that require little additional organization Typically data span relatively narrow range ofAnxiety Levelf valuescategories not too much data 10 1All raw data is shown9 2Ex scores 7 10 2 3 7 3 1 6 6 6 5 3 8 29 1 7 5 9 5 7 8 6 1 7 8 2 7 5 N25 therefore total of f256 4Could also use this for nominalcategorical datayoud use names rather than numbers ex X column 5 3 would have political parties and y column would benumber of people voting for that person
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