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Lecture 10

PSY210H1F Lecture 10

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University of Toronto St. George
Justin Mc Neil

PSY210H1F L10; Nov 27, 2012 Families as a Dynamic System The Family  How are families changing?  Fredo, you're my older brother, and I love you. But don't o More single adults – no intention of ever marrying ever take sides with anyone against the Family again. Ever. o Postponed marriages – Michael Corleone o Increasing employment of women o Divorce more common What is a Family? o  Single-parent families  Mother/father? o  Children in poverty  Parents/children? o  Reconstituted families – single-parent families  Siblings? blend into each other  Extended family? o Multigenerational families  O family must be understood as a social system  Close friends? o Ex. Athletes – strong loyalty to one another  Americans: Wistful nostalgia for old American family w  So a family can b related by mutual goals well-defined traditional roles – sanctity of the family o You can be a family if you all believe that you are o Can have bonds as strong as many family bonds Direct influences  Pp who are linked together by biology, affection, shared  What is “good” parenting? What matters? What is the goals, choice purpose of a family? – response of parent depends on their relationship w child Modern Study: Family as a Social System o Socialize children? o Care for children?  Bronfenbrenner – broadened study to other systems o We should attempt to understand the complexities of o Protect/nurture children? the indiv’s relations to the envt  What is most important? What do children need? How do o Ex. Family – by def’n is multiple indivs we see to these needs?  Direct Influences – focused on in past o Children’s direct interactions w another adult Dimensions of Parenting (parents, siblings)  3 main dimensions – somewhat distinct o Gained great deal of knowledge  Diana Bonreim? o Ex. Understand there is a bidirectional influence  Autonomy support  Indirect Influences o Autonomy supporting parents allow children to make o If a mother & child have a poor relationship, why? their own decisions – to self-determine  Temperament, poor attachment (direct) o Autonomy restricting parents impose their authority on children  Or indirect: community w few supports, poor relationship btwn parents, long job hours  Behavioral control  Moderate the relationship btwn mother & o Controlling parents impose rules & monitor them child o Less controlling parents make fewer demands, provide less structure  Ex. Culture  How genes affect us – inward study o Outlining expectations – when reached, what do parents do?  Acceptance/involvement o Emotional connection  Better to have strong than weak connection o Accepting parents give kids warmth & affection o Unresponsive parents criticize, punish, and do not communicate with children  AS & BC controversial at time of publishing Authoritative Parenting  High in autonomy, high support & emotional connection in all ways, high control o High in all dimensions  Rules enforced in a rational manner o Ex. Parents explain why curfew exists, can alter it based on past performance; child has input  Rules take children’s perspective into account  Most “successful” parenting style; linked to a variety of (+)ve outcomes  Chronosystem: these relationships don’t remain stable o Rational, warm, sensitive to indiv needs of childsm o These structures all change over time: predicted (+)ve outcomes in attachment, etc. Authoritarian Parenting o Withholding affection, approval  Low acceptance & warmth, high & coercive control, low o Withdrawal of reinforcement autonomy  Express disappointment in a child’s bhvr  Parents make decisions for children, not w them  “If you do that again, then that’s not the way this o Rules exist to have rules family does things” o Rational behind rules often not discussed w children o Using this emotional connection to modify the child’s o Rules take their own shape bhvr  High expectations for children’s bhvr; expectations often o Not effective to instill empathy in children  caused attachment to not develop unrealistic  Liberal use of punishment - High use of psychological o In most cases, see is a poorer discipline style than control: take advantage of children’s psychological needs Power Assertion o Primarily differentiates Authoritarian from o Characteristic of Authoritarian parenting  Induction Authoritative  Poor outcomes for children o Explain why bhvr is wrong o Makes use of children’s capacity for reason, empathy Permissive Parenting  “Do you think that is a good thing you did? How would that make you feel if it was you?”  High warmth & acceptance, low in control/involvement  Extremely autonomy-supportive  Works w the child o Child can make decisions about everything o Hallmark of a warm & supportive parent o Beyond the child’s cognitive capacity o Uses bhvr as a teaching moment instead of something that should be blocked  Overindulgent or inattentive  Impose little discipline o Characteristic of Authoritative parenting o Cannot be said to break rules because there are no rules Parental Discipline Styles  Power assertion & love withdrawal  Poor outcomes for children o linked to fewer (+)ve outcomes  But permissive parents are not bad parents; they make just be low in self-efficacy o Children tend to demonstrate less responsiveness to these styles  But some permissive parents believe that is the right way – o Typically used by authoritarian parents don’t want their children to be upset, want to shield them o Over time become less responsive  necessitates from poor emotional outcomes increase of severity of punishment  abuse Uninvolved Parenting  Induction linked to gains in social, academic & moral outcomes, self-esteem  Low acceptance, low involvement, great deal of autonomy o Helps child to understand the perspective of another support  Often neglectful, low interest in child’s life o Typically used by authoritative parents  But both Authoritarian & Authoritative trying to socialize  Generally indifferent toward child children, trying to get them to follow rules  Very poor outcomes o Worst outcomes Transmission of Social Values  How to best ensure that children obey rules? Benefits of Authoritative Parenting  Authoritative parenting: greater internalization of social  High self-esteem, academic achievement, social/moral rules maturity  Create a warm emotional context  strong attachment o Act well, even in the absence of authority; act this way because they want to, not because of fear of  Discipline viewed as “teaching” moments; promote child’s punishment self-regulation  How does this work?  Monitor child’s whereabouts, activities  Encourage autonomy in a gradual, appropriate manner How Do Children Internalize Rules?  Encourages Internalization of values  Forbidden Toy experiment  Child presented with two toys Parental Discipline Styles: Hoffman (1970)  Power Assertion o Punished for selecting the “attractive” toy o Researchers then leave the room o Use of punishment: power to admonish, chastise o Will child continue to follow the rules if there is  Parenting thru punishment nobody around? o Use of physical punishment, psychological control o “You should do as I say just because... Or else.”  Try to ask if the child will internalize this rule o Under what circumstances can the child be convinced o Forcing children to obey commands to follow the rule? o Immediate compliance w/o questioning  Punishment: Expter comes in, air horn, etc. o Poor way to instill empathy o Characteristic of Authoritarian parenting  Love withdrawal parent, how would you stop her from exercising poor manners?  Social conventional violation o Arbitrary o No reason to not do it except that ppl don’t do it  Induction – what if everyone did this? Wouldn’t work  Taking her to a restaurant, shaming her into compliance   Aronfreed 1968 works  Bribing  works Forbidden Toy  What affects decision to select one toy or another? Is There a “Best” Type of Parenting? o Timing of punishment – had to immediately follow  Do parents use “one” type of discipline? infraction o No o Consistency – punishment had to happen every  Does it make them now good parents to not use induction time, very consistently & predictably all the time? o Intensity – outweighed marginal benefit of the toy  Dif transgressions “pull” for dif types of discipline  If anxiety produced too overpowering  avoid  Good parents match discipline to situation, child playing w the toy only in the presence of o Good parenting is context-specific authority  Children will also evaluate the kind of discipline strategy More effective to predict internalization:  Relationship to punisher used, not passive recipients o Discipline coming from warm & nurturing adults more effective o Ex. If expter got to know the child first o  less likely to play w toy than if had simply been punished  Verbal rationale o When reasons for punishment were given, bhvr less likely to occur  Ex. Don’t want to break it, the toy is someone else’s o More effective to criticize the action/bhvr, not the person Grusec & Goodnow, 1994   internalize the msg they did a bad thing, but aren’t a bad person Children evaluate discipline o Links bhvr to emotional & cognitive systems  Internalization occurs when discipline matches offense o Driving force behind what makes induction o Nature of misdeed effective as a discipline strategy o Nature of parental reaction  Actively evaluate how parents react & why Emily  Content  Emily, a 14-yr-old decided she wanted to start wearing  Structure goth clothing. If you were her parents, would you approve of her choice of clothing? Why or why not? o Nature of child  If hasn’t acted this way in past, should maybe  Induction  she’ll prob tell you it’s not of your business react less strongly o Nature of parent James  Warm parents received better  Coming home from work you spot James, your 7-yr-old boy, playing w a lighter. What do you do? Parenting & Autonomy  First, grabbing the light – forcing immediate compliance  Authoritative parenting: fosters autonomy in children thru Power Assertion  Deci
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