Chapter 3: Carl Jung
- Biographical Context
Pastor and boring father; authoritarian and ugly mother
As a child, he had several close contacts and brushes with death, and he also was
familiar with illness.
During his youth a series of fainting spells caused him to miss over six months of school
Jung originally wanted to be an archaeologist
Became a lecturer at the University of Zurich and established a private practice and
developed a word association test in order to study emotional reactions.
Personal and professional relationship with Sigmund Freud.
They two broke because of the conflicts on the topic of sexuality (Jung believed that
sexuality itself must be seen as symbolic.)
- Analytical psychology (Jung’s own school of thought)
The Nature and Structure of Personality
- Carl Jung conceived of the structure of personality as a complex network of interacting
systems that strive toward eventual harmony.
- Described two primary attitudes toward reality and four basic functions, which together
constitute separate but related aspects of the psyche, or total personality.
- Jung viewed the unconscious as the source of consciousness and the matrix of new
possibilities in life.
- Jung’s Structure of Personality:
Ego: one’s conscious mind
For Freud, the ego is ideally the executor of the personality.
For Jung, the ego is one’s conscious mind, the parts of the psyche that selects
perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and memories that may enter consciousness.
The ego, however, is not the true center of personality for Jung.
Personal unconscious: perceptions, thoughts, feelings that are easily retrieved
(repressed or forgotten individual experiences)
Experiences in the personal unconscious are grouped into clusters, which Jung
A complex is an organized group of thoughts, feelings, and memories about a
particular concept. It is said to have a constellating power, which means that the
complex has the ability to draw new ideas into itself and interpret them.
Influencing how we react toward others.
A complex may be organized around a particular person or object. A mother
complex is the cluster of ideas, feelings, and memories that have arisen from our
own particular experiences of having been mothered.
A complex may be conscious, partly conscious, or unconscious. Certain elements
of it may extend into the collective unconscious.
Some complexes appear to dominate an entire personality.
Collective unconscious: universal thought forms or predispositions to respond
(expressed as archetypes) “transpersonal”
Certain archetypes and symbols reappear again and again from society to society,
and they may be seen to have a common meaning.
- Within the collective unconscious lie archetypes, or primordial images.
- Archetype: a universal thought form or predisposition to respond to the world in certain
- Archetypes represent different potential ways in which we may express our humanness.
- Efforts to deny or destroy archetypes place us at risk of becoming unbalanced or one-sided.
- Archetypes can never be fully known or described because they never fully enter
- Several influential archetypes: the persona, the shadow, the anima and animus, and the self
Persona: the social role that one assumes in society and one understanding of it.
The persona represents a compromise between one’s true identity and social
The persona assigned to a group may limit and cripple the development of
individuals in the groups as well as the group itself.
Change in one’s social role, such as marriage, unemployment or retirement, can
lead to dissonance.
Shadow: encompasses those unsocial thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that we
potentially possess and other characteristics that we do not accept.
it is the opposite of persona. It refers to those desire and emotions that are
incompatible with our social standards and ideal personality.
The shadow cannot be avoided, and one is incomplete without it.
The shadow can also be projected onto others.
Jung suggested a need to come to know our baser side and recognize our
Anima and Animus:
The anima archetype: the feminine side of the male psyche
The animus archetype: the masculine side of the female psyche
It assists us in relating to and understanding the opposite sex.
Jung believed that it was important that one express these opposite-sex
characteristics in order to avoid an unbalanced or one-sided personality.
Jung believed that the women’s consciousness is characterized by the ability to
enter into relationships, whereas men’s consciousness is characterized by the
ability to engage in rational and analytic thought.
A women’s animus need not be thought of as acting in opposition to femininity. In
ideal development, the animus will lead a woman to transform her femininity into
a renewed form of consciousness that overcomes the traditional dualities. Same
would be true of ideal development in the male
Androgyny: the presence of both masculine and feminine qualities in an individual
and the ability to realize both potentialities.
The central archetype in Jung’s understanding The self represents the striving for unity of all parts of the personality.
The self directs an orderly allotment of psychic energy so that different parts of
the personality are expressed appropriately.
Depending on the occasion and our personal needs, the self allows us to be
socially acceptable at work (persona), outrageous at a Halloween party (shadow),
emotional at a concert (shadow), and so forth.
For Jung, the true self lies on the boundary between conscious and unconscious,
reason and unreason.
The self archetype cannot begin to emerge until the other personality systems
have been fully developed. (thus it usually does not begin to emerge until one has
reached middle age.)
Mandala: Jung believes this is a symbol of the universe and also the symbol of the self.
It represents the self striving toward wholeness.
Jung described numerous other archetypes of the collective unconscious: birth,
rebirth, power, magic, the child, the hero…..
Archetypes find expression in cultural forms (adam is the first man; Christ and
Buddha represent the self)
Freud and the Collective Unconscious
Jung believed that our unconscious remains archaic, despite our scientific
technology and the development of our rational powers.
- Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious is an important and controversial one in
personality theorizing, evoking both considerable support and opposition.
- Arise out of various combinations of two basic attitudes and four functions, or ways of
perceiving the environment and orienting experiences.
Extraversion: an attitude in which the psyche is oriented outward to the objective
Introversion: an attitude in which the psyche is oriented inward to the subjective
Jung labeled himself an introvert and Freud and extravert.
The functions of sensation and intuition refer to how we gather data and
information. The sensor is more comfortable using the five senses and dealing
with facts and reality. The intuitor looks for relationships and meanings or
possibilities about past or future events.
Thinking and feeling refer to how we come to conclusions or making judgments.
The thinker prefers to use logic and impersonal analysis. The feeler is more
concerned with personal values, attitudes, and beliefs.
The two attitudes and four functions combine to form eight psychological types.
Self-Realization: - The self is in the process of self-realization. Personality development continues throughout
life, and the middle year mark the beginning of major changes.
- The origin of the principle takes us back to the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Everything has a
telos, a purpose or goal, that constitutes its essence and indicates its potentiality.
- Each one of us has the potential to develop into a self-that is, to realize, fulfill, and enhance
our maximum human potentialities.
- Jung maintained that both causality and teleology are necessary for full self-realization.
- A third component that could lead to self-realization
- Synchronicity, a phenomenon in which events are related to one another through
simultaneity and meaning.
- Jung believed that synchronistic events arise from the simultaneous occurrence of two
different psychic states.
- In the external world a situation occurs in the normal chain of causal events; in the internal
world an archetype emerges into consciousness.
- Jung believed that synchronicity is involved in phenomena studied by the science of
parapsychology, which investigates the perceptions that come to us in ways other than
through the normal five senses.
- Jung also lined synchronicity to I Ching, an intuitive traditional Chinese method of grasping a
situation and choosing alternatives, in which straws are randomly divided or coins are tosse
and the resultant pattern is consulted to divine an answer.
Individuation and Transcendence :
- In individuation, the systems of the individual psyche achieve their fullest degree of
differentiation, expression, and development.
- Transcendence refers to integration of the diverse systems of the self toward the goal of
wholeness and identity with all of humanity.
- For Jung, individuation does not mean individualism in that narrow sense, but rather fulfilling
one’s own specific nature and realizing one’s uniqueness in one’s place within the whole.
- Individuation and transcendence are both ongoing processes.
- First half of life: more concerned with the cultivation of consciousness and gender-specific
- Second half of life: more concerned with coming into closer contact with self and expressing
our collective unconscious and oneness with humanity as a whole.
- The true person does not consist of the conscious or the unconscious, mind or body, persona
or shadow, overt sexual characteristics or complements. The true person consists of all of
- For Freud, the person is inescapably in conflict; for Jung, the person ultimately seeks
- Van Eenwyk’s chaos theory: attempts to describe complicated systems formerly outside the
range of classical mathematics and physics, illumines Jung’s theory.
- Jung’s thoughts foreshadowed a quest for spirituality that is evident today – the search for
meaning or for a power beyond the self rather than adherence to particular tenets, as in a
- Jung’s self archetype is the God within. - Our longing for the spiritual must be satisfied in a loving, life-affirming, and constructive
quest for self-understanding that goes beyond the rational and includes the transformative
- Otherwise, we will be led to find new gods: perhaps horrific ones, such as alcohol or drugs,
codependent relationships, or fanatical devotion and terrorist actions in behalf of our deities.
- Jungian concepts, such as the archetypes and the collective unsconscious, can present a
structure for embracing spiritual matters and psychic phenomena.
- The field of personality is a natural place to begin to integrate spiritual concepts into the
- Jung viewed emotional disturbance as a person’s attempt to reconcile the contradictory
aspects of personality.
- For Freud a neurosis represents the return of the repressed, but for Jung it is the insistence
of the undeveloped part of the personality on being heard and realized.
- In classical Freudian psychoanalysis, the analyst remains detached and reveals few personal
feelings and reactions in order to facilitate the transference. The Jungian analyst is more
self-disclosing, foreshadowing Rogerian and other contemporary therapies. (“Dialectical
procedure, a dialogue between doctor and patient, conscious and unconscious.)
- Early stages of treatment: confession. Accompanied by emotional release. Jung viewed it as
the aim of the cathartic method originated by Breuer and Freud.
Emotional release, in itself, is not therapeutic any more than temper tantrums or other
emotional outbursts are curative in and of themselves.
The presence of the other, the therapist who supports the patient morally and
spiritually as well as intellectually, makes the confession curative.
- Projection and transference play an important role in Jungian analysis
Jung viewed the sexual components of the transference as symbolic efforts by the
patient to reach a higher integration of personality.
In contrast to Freud, Jung did not think that transference was a necessary precondition
Freud treated dreams as the expression of unconscious wishes
Jung gave them a prospective function as well as a retrospective one. Dream
represents an effort by the person to prepare for future events.
Dreams also have a compensatory function: they are efforts to complement the
patient’s conscious side and to speak for the unconscious.
The method of amplification developed by Jung rather than the method of free
In free association, each dream element is the starting place for a chain of
associations that may lead far afield from the original element.
In amplification, one focuses repeatedly on the element and gives multiple
associations to it. (the dream is taken exactly as it is with no precise effort to
distinguish between manifest and latent contents.) Unlike Freud, who tended to deal with dreams singly, Jung concentrate on series