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Ch. 3,5 - Treatment of abnormality and research methods

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CH. 3,5: Treatment of Abnormality and Research Methods SEPT 29, 09 (DN = DOES NOTDO NOT) Biological approaches to treatment - Drug therapies - E.g. Antipsychotic, antidepressant, anti-anxiety, mood stabilizer (like lithium therapy, used for bipolar disorder, anti-convulsive drugs) drugs depend on gender, age, tolerance of side effects, mechanism of action thought of as the main treatment for psychological disorders (more so than psychotherapy) Alternatives to medicine (AKA, a last resort) - Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - Pass electrical current through the head which triggers seizures - Still used quite frequently, even though we dont know exactly how it works (made safer by shortening the duration of the current, lowering the intensity, lessening the number of sessions per patient, and muscle relaxants used now) - Used to be used for schizophrenia, but now limited to people with mood disorders (like depression and bipolar disorder) Can have impact on severely suicidal people, whose medication takes awhile to start working Can affect cognitive function, but the effects usually fade away after a few days - Psychosurgery - Remove part of the brain thought to be implicated in the disorder - Irreversible, since its removing a part of the brain - Experimentally used for Parkinsons disease, epilepsy, and extreme OCD not as widespread, but some surgeries involve implanting something to stimulate parts of the brain - Repetitive Transcranial Stimulation - Uses powerful magnets to stimulate targeted areas of the brain more recent development thought to result in long term increase in neurotransmitters in the synapses since its recent, dont know how it works may work for extreme OCD less side effects, pain, downtime, etc A lot of variation across individual treatment What is psychotherapy? - Psychological approach to treatment - Different modalities - Individual, group, family, couple - Advantages and disadvantages of individual vs. group Advantages of individual: get more individual time, more personalized, better for private people perceived shameful situations Disadvantages of individual: Adv. Of group: sharing and learning about other experiences and coping skills, cost effective, strengthen social skills - Different models - Psychodynamics, interpersonal, behavioural, cognitive, humanistic, existential Therapeutic Relationship - Empathy - Genuineness (be honest in feedback, no matter how goodbad) - Unconditional positive regard (ex: no scolding for not taking advice) - Respect - Development of trust (based on real information and maintaining confidentiality) - Foster expectancy of hope and change - Collaboration (mutually coming up with what to do) Goals of Most Psychotherapies - Fostering insight, awareness, and self-understanding (help person become more aware of sources of distress; connections between thoughts, feelings, behaviours; unconscious sources of conflict, repressed impulses, etc) - Reducing emotional distress (feel comfortable and calm) - Encouraging catharsis acknowledgement and release of affect (saying things that cant be said anywhere else) - Providing new information (like psycho-education) - Assigning outside therapy tasks (person goes to session regularly and doespractice homework in between sessions this is where change takes place) - Development of hope and positive expectations Psychodynamic Therapy based on Freuds theory meant for anxietymood symptoms, not schizophrenia - Goal is to gain insight into ones inner life (patterns, tendencies, actions, motivations, unconscious impulses, etc) - Examines early relationships (like past conflictstrauma unconscious conflict) controversial use of hypnosis (hypnotized patients often make up memories) - Transference patient displaces affect and feeling about others onto the therapist (like therapist reminds patient of their abusive father) - Counter transference Therapists emotional responses to patient (like patient reminds therapist of someone else) - Psychoanalysis special[ized] type of psychodynamic therapy using free association and examination of dreams and fantasies (takes a lot of motivation, time, money, etc.) - Brief Psychodynamic Therapy It has the same principles, but focuses on thee specific problem to be solved; not the general problem of how to increase functioning. - Interpersonal therapy An effective treatment for depression by focusing on past relationships; grief; role transition [ending a relationship, changing jobs, etc]; conflict; & social skills deficits Not much strong empirical support
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