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PSYB32 Chapter 2

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Exam Study Package: Week 2 Chapter 2 Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural Factors May 13, 2008 Paradigm: a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines who to conceptualize and study a subject, how to gather and interpret relevant data, even how to think about a particular subject The Role of Paradigms Paradigm: a set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry it injects usual biases into the definition and collection of data and may also affect the interpretation of facts meaning or importance given to a data may depend on a paradigm The Biological Paradigm it is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesis (mental disorders are caused by irregular biological processes aka. Medical model or disease model the germ theory was once very pervasive but then it was found that it cannot account for all diseases (ex. Diabetes) medical illness are common in that; there is some biological process that is disrupted or not functioning normally th this paradigm was dominant from late 1800s to the middle 20 century also called the medical model or disease model Ex. Halls removed ovarian cysts or the whole ovary to treat melancholia, mania, and delusions Contemporary approaches to the biological paradigm There are research supporting heredity having to increase the risk of certain mental disorders and may result from a chemical imbalance within the brain (depression), defect within the autonomic nervous system (anxiety disorder) and impairment in brain structure (dementia) In each case, the psychopathology is viewed as caused by the disturbance of some biological process Those using the biological paradigm assume that the answers to these puzzles of psychopathology will be found w/in the body Behaviour Genetics Behaviour genetics: study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable part to differences in genetic make up Genotype: his or her unobservable genetic constitution (fixed at birth) Phenotype: totality of his or her observable behavioural characteristics (changes over time & a product of interaction between genotype and environment) Various clinical syndromes are disorders of the phenotype, not genotype Diathesis: a predisposition, may be inherited, but not the disorder itself Behaviour genetics relied on 4 basic methods for whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited o 1. THE FAMILY METHOD -Comparison of members of a family People who share 50% of genes with a given individual are called first-degree relatives Nephews and nieces share 25% of an uncles genes and is called second-degree relatives Index cases/probands: are the individuals under investigation o 2. Comparison of pairs of twins PSYB32 Exam Study Package: Week 2 Concordant: when twins are similar diagnostically are said to be this When MZ concordance rate is higher than DZ rate, the characteristic being studied is said to be heritable But sometimes its not heritable but the rearing practises of parents Equal environment assumption: the environmental factors that are partial cause of concordance rate are equally influential for MZ and DZ pairs Sometimes results maybe similar because of the environment rather than biology o 3. Investigation of adoptees Study children who were adopted and reared apart from their parents w/ abnormal disorders Eliminates the effect of being raised by disordered parents o Linkage analysis Study families in which a disorder is heavily concentrated Tries to specify the particular gene involved Collect diagnostic information and blood samples from affected individuals and relatives and use the blood sample to study the inheritance pattern of characteristics who genetics are fully understood genetic markers. Eg. Of genetic marker = eye colour. (its known to be controlled by a gene in a specific location on a specific chromosome) Molecular Genetics o Allele: any one of several DNA codings that occupy the same position or location on a chromosome. Genotype is a set of alleles o Genetic polymorphism: variability among members of the species. It involves differences in the DNA sequence that can manifest in very different forms among members in the same habitat Biochemistry In The Nervous System Each neuron has 4 major parts: cell body, dendrites, axons, and terminal buttons It is stimulated through the cell body or dendrites, the nerve impulse (electrical potential) travels down the axon into the terminal endings The gap between the sending axon and receiving neuron there is a synapse The terminal buttons contain synaptic vesicles (filled with b; a chemical substance that allow a nerve impulse to cross the synapse) The nerve impulse causes the synaptic vesicles to release molecules of their transmitter substances, and these molecules flood the synapse and diffuse toward the postsynaptic neuron Postsynaptic cell contain proteins (receptor sites); sometimes excitatory or inhibitory Then the last step is the presynaptic neuron is returned to normal state Sometimes what remains is broken by enzymes, or pumped back by reuptake Key Neurotransmitters o Norepinephrine: from the peripheral sympathetic NS, involved in produced high arousal states (must be involved in anxiety disorders) o Serotonin: brain NTs, involved in depression o Dopamine: brain NT, involved in schizophrenia o Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): inhibits some nerve impulses, involved in anxiety disorders This theory proposes that a given disorder is caused by too much or too little of a NT Too much or too little of a particular transmitter could result from an error in these metabolic pathways It may also be a problem in the reuptake process or the number of receptors o Delusions and hallucinations may result from too much dopamine receptors (increase in stimulation of the receptors) o Contemporary research has focused to a large extent on the possibility that the receptors are at fault in some psychopathologiesPSYB32 Exam Study Package: Week 2 o too many or too easily excited receptors on the postsynaptic neuron increases the chance of the postsynaptic neuron to be stimulated Focus On Discovery 2.1: Structure and Function of the Human Brain 3 layers envelop the skull called the meninges; divided by a midline fissure Cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain Connecting the two hemisphere is the corpus callosum There are 10-15 billion neurons that make up the grey matter The cortex is vastly convoluted; ridges are called gyri and depressions are called sulci or fissures The frontal lobe: lies in front of the central sulcus Parietal lobe: behind central sulcus and above the lateral sulcus the temporal lobe: located below the lateral sulcus the occipital lobe: located behind the parietal and temporal lobe Deep fissures divide the brain into 4 lobes Left hemisphere: controls right half of body, speech Right hemisphere: control left half of body, spatial relations and patterns, is involved in emotion and intuition They communicate via the corpus callosum The grey matter is around the surface of the brain, the interior is mainly white matter (made up of large tracts or bundles of mylinated fibres) Nuclei: centres and pockets of grey matter. Serve as connecting tracts from the cortex with other ascending and descending tracts and as integrating motor and sensory control centers Basal ganglia: 4
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