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PSY260H1F (Summer) Lecture 3

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Daniela Bellicoso

PSY260H1F L3; May 21, 13 Classical Conditioning: Ch. 7 (4 in 2 ) Bhvr’al Processes  Classical Conditioning: learning paradigm where an organism learns to produce a conditioned response (CR) to a previously neutral stimulus (NSCS) that has been repeatedly presented along w an unconditioned stimulus (US) o NS – initially doesn’t signal anything to you o aka Pavlovian Conditioning  Involves learning to anticipate a (+)ve or (-)ve event so it can be prepared for  Ex. Pavlov’s dogs – salivated at sound of bell Basic Concepts of Classical Conditioning  Unconditioned Stimulus (US): cue that has some biological significance & in the absence of prior training naturally evokes a response  Unconditioned Response (UR): naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus o More reflexive  Conditioned Stimulus (CS): cue that is paired w an unconditioned stimulus (US) and comes to elicit a conditioned response (CR) o Most likely used to be a neutral stimulus  Conditioned Response (CR): trained response to a conditioned stimulus (CS) in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus (US) that it predicts o More anticipatory CR: now salivates in anticipation of food, whether or not it’s coming Summary:  1) US  UR (Food  Salivation)  2) NS + US  UR (Bell + Food  Salivation)  3) CS  CR (Bell  Salivation) Varieties of Conditioning  Conditioning is not species- or age-specific o Many ages & species have this  Appetitive Conditioning: conditioning in which the US is a (+)ve or pleasurable event (ex. food delivery, sex) o Events associated w excitement o Ex. shivering to warm up o If someone has already had a (-)ve sexual experience, then sex becomes an aversive stimulus o Generally work for these effects  Aversive Conditioning: conditioning in which the US is a (-)ve or unpleasant event (ex. shock, airpuff to the eye) o Generally work to diminish these effects  Prior to using airpuffs to produce eyeblink conditioning in humans, in the early 1920s, researchers used a face slap as the US  Participants were trained to blink (CR) in anticipation of a slap to the face (US)  A tone (CS) was played just prior to each face slap  Researchers no longer use face slaps as US to elicit eyeblink responses for ethical and practical reasons o The airpuff is now used to generate eyeblinks in humans as well as animals   An example of appetitive conditioning involves using sex as a ---- Learning a New Association (+)ve/favourable US  Over several days of practice, one’s learning for a specific CR o Quail study o Quail associates light w opening of door (which has a becomes stronger  Ex. Rat avoiding a foot shock: sexually receptive female) o CR (anticipatory freezing bhvr) to a CS (tone) signaling o Response: approaches o Eventualy approaches just when light (CS) appears the US (shock) o W days of practice, rat learns to freeze in response to the tone to mminimize the effects of shock o Gradual process  In animals & humans alike the %age of CRs increases w time until most trials elicit the appropriately timed predictive/anticipatory freezing CR Extinguishing an Old Association  Extinction: process of reducing a learned response to a stimulus by ceasing to pair that stimulus w/ a reward or punishment  Ex. Having a child get excited over the sound of an ice cream truck: o US: ice cream o UR (... eventual CR): excitement o CS: ice cream truck music o IF CS continually present w/o ever being paired w ice cream, child will stop getting excited  Ex: Having a dog salivate in response to a bell: o If the bell (CS) is continually presented w/o food (US), the dog will learn to stop salivating (CR) to the bell  Ex: Eyeblink conditioning: o If the tone (CS) is continually presented w/o the airpuff (US) the subject will eventually begin to stop blinking in anticipation of the airpuff (CR) to the tone  Subject has learned that the NS which became the CS no longer represents the presentation of the US  Extinction an take place for both (+)ve & (-)ve stimuli  Eyeblink conditioning is an aversive form of conditioning and  During extinction, CS acquires an additional meaning: “do involves an anticipatory defensive response not respond”  Eyeblink Conditioning: classical conditioning procedure in o This response conflicts w original “do respond” which the US is an airpuff to the eye and the CR & UR are association eyeblinks o Suggests the original learned response is not  Components of eyeblink conditioning: actually gone, just unexpressed/dormant o US: Air puff  Original learned response can reoccur via spontaneous o UR: Reflexive blink recovery o NS/CS: tone o Spontaneous Recovery: tendency for a response to a o CR: anticipatory eyeblink previously learned association to reappear after a period  Eyeblink conditioning is a useful way to study conditioning of extinction across species in response to aversive stimuli because results o If start to present food w bell again, learns to salivate to generally replicate well bell again ---- Conditioned Compensatory Responses  A preparatory response compensates for a subject’s o Some cues are redundant, so are ignored expectation of what is to come o Humans are highly sensitive to incoming info & pay  Compensatory responses can be conditioned attention to repeated info?  Pavlovian dog example:  Bower & Trabasso (1964) o Injected dogs w adrenaline at many separate times o Demonstrated that cues must present valuable new o Adrenaline’s usual effect: produce increased heart rate info in order to be learned (to form an association) o w continued subsequent injections, dogs’ heart o Trained university students to categorize objects rates showed signs of slowing according to specific predefined rules  Given immediate fdbk if right or wrong o Resulted in larger doses of drug being necessary to achieve the original heart rate increase o Phase 1: Participants were trained by asking them to  Due to tolerance guess if figures belonged to Grp A or B  Tolerance: a decrease in reaction to a drug so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect o Body tried to maintain homeostatic balance, so need larger doses of drug to cause a change  Anticipatory heart rate decrease + natural adrenaline- produced-heart-rate-increase resulted in overall lower total increase in heart rate, compared to the heart rate increase o Phase 2: After mastering this initial sorting task, observed following the first unexpected dose of adrenaline participants were presented w/ a slightly dif set of figures w/ a redundant cue (dot)  To test the cause of tolerance development, dogs were placed  Not told that dot is a cue on injection stands  All circular grp A figures had a dot on top; All o Dogs received a placebo injection triangular grp B figures had a dot on the bottom o Placebo injection caused further decrease in dogs’ heart  Dot location was a redundant cue rates (since had no adrenaline to increase it)  Sorting performance continued normally based  Decreased heart rate = conditioned on sorting rules of phase 1 compensatory response in reaction to being  Expt’ers were now interested in whether they placed on the injection stand & receiving a would learn that dor position alone predicted [placebo] injection grp A/B classification  Automatic compensatory response typically occurs in body systems w a homeostatic mechanism  Homeostasis: tendency of the body (including the brain) to gravitate toward a state of eqm or balance  Dogs began physiologically expecting adrenaline when saw cues such as a needle & drug injection stand o Phase 3: New figures introduced o Body’s automatic compensatory response was to lower  Sorting circles/triangles w/o a top/bottom heart rate to achieve a constant heart rate position dot: good grp A/B sorting ability  Compensatory response: in the moment  Sorting new figures based on dot position: poor o Ex. Trying to stay calm when enter loud room grp A/B sorting ability  Anticipatory response: see CS, respond before the moment  Found: having learned that shape predicted o Ex. salivation grp A/B blocked out new learning that dot position predicted grp membership What Cues Can Be CSs or USs?  USs in a conditioning expts are typically biologically significant either due to their inherently (+)ve or (-)ve implications o Sex, food, shock, warmth, praise  CSs in conditioning expts can be any envt’al cue o US can also serve as a CS  Stimulus cues are not inherently CSs or USs, depends how they are presenting o Ex. if air puff produced alongside food  air puff is CSError Correction and the Modulation of US Processing: Kamin’s  will salivate when air puff occurs Blocking Effect o Ex. Air puff (US) paired w Tone (CS) to make eye blink  A stimulus cue can be prevented from becoming associated w/ a US if it co-occurs w other cues already known to predict the US’s presentation Error Correction & the Modulation of US Proceessing:  CS1 (tone)  US (food)  CR (salivation) Informational Value of Cues  CS2 (light) + CS1  US  CR  Aristotle & Contiguity… o CS2 is redundant & not learned, CS1 was already o Aristotle suggested all cues related just because they learned as a valuable cue occurs in close proximity/space to each other o So CS2 won’t cause CR o But can’t generalize this very much  Kamin’s Blocking Effect (Kamin, 1969) o Grp 1 (Control group)  Prediction Error: the difference btwn what was predicted &  Trained to associate a shock (US) w/ a what actually occurred compound CS (light + tone)  Note: if No error, you do learn that you don’t have to change  Rats gave fairly strong CR to tone or light alone anything; vs no learning. … gave even stronger response to tone & light o The model does not explain everything presented together o Grp 2 (Experimental group) Conditioning error Model Tennis Michelle’s  Initially trained to associate a shock (US) w 1 responses error response CS (light) (+)ve error: CS ↑ association Ball falls ↑ strength  Responded w a strong CR to CS-light predicts nothing or short of serve  Step 2: Next were trained to associate a shock too little, but US (US) w a compound CS (light + tone) occurs unexpectedly  When tested, additional presence of the or is too strong tone did not change ability to predict a No error: CS predicts No learning Ball lands Do same shock US, and predicted US perfectly thing next  At testing: occurs time  Compound CS: Additional tone presence = (-)ve error: CS ↓ association Ball goes ↓ strength no change in ability to predict shock predicts US, but no too far to serve  CS (light alone): Rats showed strong CR t US occurs avoid shock  CS (tone alone): very poor CR to avoid  The Rescorla-Wagner model is associated w error-correction shock learning o Suggests they learned almost nothing o After many learning trials to associate a CS & US, the about tone’s ability to predict US likelihood of prediction errors is reduced/corrected (shock)  The Rescorla-Wagner Model has been so important over the o If CS1 association w US becomes extinct, can now years due to its simplicity pair the previously redundant CS2 w US  So now, CS2 (light)  US  CR o However, its simplicity, while beneficial for explaining many learning concepts, prevents it from accounting  blocking for all learning  Blocking: bhvr’al training paradigm in which conditioning to a --- Cue-Outcome Contingency & Judgments of Causality neutral stimulus is prevented if that stimulus is presented w Rescorla, 1968 another CS already conditioned to produce the CR  Study showed conditioning to a CS depends on frequency of o Phenomenon of blocking shows that to form an CSUS pairing, and on frequency of US when CS is absent association via classical conditioning, Cues signalling  In this study CS was a tone US must be useful, non-redundant (shows new info), and reliable predictors of the future  Expt’al chamber served as a compound cue with the tone, and it provided context  Blocking shows contiguity btwn cues is not enough o Context: circumstances & envt where an event occurs.  Contextual stimuli are relatively constant on all Error Correction Learning trials rather than being manipulated by the  Humans & animals learn from their failures expt’er  Error-Correction Learning: suggests that errors on each  In such an expt, Rescorla-Wagner model suggests animal learning trial lead to small performance changes that work to actually experiences the tone-alone trials as compound-cue reduce error in the following trial trials consisting of tone-CS together w the context  Error correction learning is very common when learning a o Suggests tone and context compete to predict the US particular skill & understanding right moves from wrong ones o If the US occurs equally as much with and with context-  Ex. Making a recipe, deciding on salt content alone vs. with context+tone, the context will be the o No falvour  add more salt more reliable cue o Good flavour  add same amt of salt o Too salty  add less salt --- Exampl
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