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Lecture 3

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Susanne Ferber

Lecture Three: Gross Anatomy of the Eye: – cone cells: photoreceptor cells in retina of the eye, responsible for color vision + function best in bright light + densely packed in fovea – rod cells: photoreceptor cells in retina of the eye that can function in less intense light + concentrated in outer edges of retina, used in peripheral vision + more sensitive than cone cells, they're responsible for night vision Retinotopic Organization in V1: – retinotopy: spatial organization of the neuronal responses to visual stimuli – process lines, curves, make different aspects of shapes and objects – in occipital lobe, can process different attributes (ie: color) Cortical Processing of Color: – area in brain called V4 allows us to appreciate the differences of color – sensation and perception of color – cones pick up the environment of color + captures light information + neural signals sent to occipital lobe, to V4, and to cones and decode what the colors mean. – Cerebral achromatopsia: damage to extrastriate cortex including V4 + see no color;; black and white world + lack of appreciation for color Cortical Processing of Motion: – sensation and perception of motion – seeing where things are going; around one person – eyes good with updating fluid motion … moment to moment;; cones & rods in action. – Brain uses V5, sensitive to perception of motion. + found using fMRI – akinetopsia: damage to extrastriate cortex including V5 + both sides damaged + lose ability to process motion – choppy;; can't string fluid movements Cortical streams of processing: – identification of objects + achieved through ventral stream (DOWN) of processing – originates in occipital lobe and moves toward temporal lobe + help us identify objects + bridge between visual input and knowledge concepts of what we know in the world & where things are – dorsal stream (UP) goes to the parietal lobe + localize objects in service of supporting action – the two streams have to come together;; the information + mutli-sensory integration – dorsal and ventral activation goes on at same time Are faces special? – specialized module in brain that distinct faces and lose it when processing faces upside down – face inversion effect – left hemisphere processes elements of an object ;; right is able to put it together + trouble seeing faces when right hemisphere damaged + need to perceive face as a whole... right is good at. + damage on the left... no consistent problem – Fusiform face area (FFA) activated when people looked at faces + specific area of the brain – parahippocampal place area (PPA): important for looking at scenes, places + activated when looking at houses (example) Impairment of the ventral stream: - occipital lobe to the temporal lobe + connection between the two is disrupted... + ventral goes to visual to temporal lobe … if severed, would have impairment identifying objects using vision. – visual agnosia: inability to identify objects using vision + a disconnection syndrome – associative agnosia: cannot associate + ie: looks red... shape... describe visual elements but can't tell it's a can of coke + cannot reach conceptual knowledge + can use other senses to find out what it is.. + can draw objects just fine, just can't tell what they are – apperceptive agnosia: problem with perception + can't identify objects using vision + can't see objects properly ;; can't draw objects properly – inability to recognize faces... prosopagnosia + “face blindness” + Looks at a face... knows its a face but don't know who it belongs to + damage to fusiform gyrus area – the right side (see face as a whole) How does object recognition occur? – template theory: + for us to recognize any mental objects, we must have the template of the object + must represents multiple templates for many viewpoints we see. + lots of templates needed to recognize objects in different orientation + The mind needs to recognize template and objects + stored patterns that are compared to sensory input for identification + size, orientation, and non-standard – feature analysis theory: recognizing letters + Characters with different properties – horizontal, vertical + how different lines come together + a combination of unique features are noted for the identification
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