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PSY321H1 (13)
Lecture

chapter 14.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY321H1
Professor
Simone Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 14 – Culture and Social Behaviour 1 Culture and Person Perception Person Perception - refers to process of forming impressions of others o includes judgments of appearance, attractiveness, personality traits - greater height (considered attractive) associated with leadership ability, competence, and high salary - size generally associated with strength and dominance – perceptions held even by infants - people across cultures tend to agree on their judgments of personality o demonstrated through statements of personality based on pictures of facial expression - experiment: American and Japanese people made judgments of traits from faces of US and Japanese political candidates o high agreement across cultures o predictive of percentage of votes each candidate received o each culture was better at predicting the election outcome of their own culture - experiment: American and Japanese observers were shown smiling faces that differed in the intensity for the eyes or the mouth o Americans trusted face with more intensity in the mouth (smiling mouths)  believed smiling faces to be more intelligent o Japanese trusted face with more intensity in eyes  believed neutral faces to be more intelligent than smiling faces - nonverbal behaviours are important cues, lead to impression formation - study found that there were more negative nonverbal behaviours towards black tv characters than white o exposure to pro-white nonverbal bias increased viewers bias unconsciously Culture and Face Recognition - same-race bias in ability to recognize faces (better recognition of faces from one’s own race than other races) o exists in children as young as 3 months - same-race bias could be b/c of greater interaction with ones own race Culture and Attractiveness - evolutionary theories predict that there is a universal standard of attractiveness (b/c attractiveness increases chances of reproduction - leg-to-body ration is associated with attractiveness o short and excessively long legs judged as less attractive - men prefer low female waist-to-hip ratio (shown to be true for blind men as well!) o suggesting that this may be an innate preference and not a visually learned one - there are cultural differences in the meaning of attractiveness o North Americans tend to link physical attractiveness to desirable personality traits (nice, trustworthy, smart, good social skills) o Koreans rated attractive faces as more socially and intellectually competent, better adjusted, and more sexually interesting Chapter 14 – Culture and Social Behaviour 2  difference was that they also said attractive faces were more empathetic - slim women tended to elicit positive nonverbal behaviours - unconscious verbal cues in a culture will influence how a person thinks Love, Sex, and Marriage Across Cultures Culture and Mate Selection - 36/37 countries females rated financial prospects more importantly than males did o 29/36 countries females rated ambition and industriousness more importantly than males - all 37 cultures males preferred younger mates and females older - 34/37 males rated good looks as more important than females - 23/37 cultures males rated chastity as more important than females - therefore females value traits related to resource acquisition and males value traits related to reproduction - study: Americans prefer expressivity, openness, sense of humor more than Russians who preferred them more than Japanese o Russians said skill as a lover (good at sex) as most important and Japanese said it was least important - mate poaching: stealing someone else’s mate o most common in Southern/Western/Eastern Europe and South America o less common in Africa, South/Southeast/East Asia o in all, males were more likely to do this and to be the victims of mate- poaching attempts by others o in all, poachers were comfortable in talking about sex, more disagreeable, less trustworthy, unfaithful o cultures with more economic resources had higher rates of mate poaching attempts Culture and Love - study: French and Americans had higher ratings than Japanese on love commitment and disclosure maintenance o Americans higher on relational ambivalence o Japanese and Americans higher than French on conflict expression - romantic love seems to be more valued in US and Germany than in Japan o more valued in cultures with few strong family bonds o less valued in cultures where strong kinship networks influence relationship b/w marriage partners Culture and Sex - people from many non-Western cultures value chastity very highly in a potential mate whereas people from western Europe do not care - homosexuality tends to be more accepted in cultures that are more industrialized, and affluent - one study: widespread acceptance of premarital sex across the 24 countries studied o but teen sex and extramarital sex were not accepted - cultures with fewer resources and more stress are linked to more insecure romantic attachments and higher fertility rates Chapter 14 – Culture and Social Behaviour 3 - jealous is a universal reaction to infidelity of one’s mate o men more jealous when their mates have sex with another man o women more jealous when their mates have an emotional attachment with another female Culture and Marriage - 90% of people in most cultures get married - South/Southeast/East Asia tend to score higher on preoccupied romantic attachment, attachment to others are relatively more dependent on value that they provide to others and that others provide to themselves - many cultures want women to have children before 30 but this conflicts with cultures that are high on educational importance - individualistic cultures are more likely to rate love as essential to marriage and therefore the disappearance of love is a good reason to end a marriage - arranged marriages are very common in many cultures o seen as a union of families o people often report that they grow to love the marry they marry Intercultural Marriages - partners come from two different cultural backgrounds - conflicts arise in major areas: expression of love/intimacy, nature of commitment, approaches to child rearing, division of male/female roles, relationships with extended family - sometimes the differences do not show up until children come into the picture - children with stronger ethnic identities are more likely to marry within their own ethnic group - for success both partners need to be flexible and committed Culture and Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience - conformity means yielding to real or imagined social pressure - compliance is yielding to social pressure in one’s public behaviour even though one’s private beliefs may not have changed - obedience is a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands (usually from a person in a position of authority) - experiment: 36.8% would conform by giving a wrong answer to an easy question after hearing the majority of people (all confederates of the study) give wrong answers - another famous study is the giving a shock to a person experiment o 65% of people went to the danger zone shock - conformity tends to be higher when the majority consists of ingroup members and when the stimuli is ambiguous o also higher in collectivistic countries - source of cultural difference may be in historical prevalence of pathogens: cultures where pathogens were more prevalent may have facilitated cultural norms promoting greater conformity in order to deal with increased risk of disease - all depends on what cultures values, in some to conform is “weak” whereas in others to conform is required for successful relationships Culture and Cooperation Chapter 14 – Culture and Social Behaviour 4 - cooperation refers to people’s ability to work together toward common goals - cooperation, trust, and giving allow people to care for others’ children and to help out victims (even without a personal relationship to them) - experiment: divided Japanese participants into high and low trusters and then played game where they could give money to others (with or without a system that provided punishments) o high trusters cooperated more without the sanctioning system o when the sanctioning system was in effect, low trusters cooperated more o found same results for Americans - size of communities people live in is positively associated with punishment – the larger the community the greater the punishment - intercultural interactions can lead to increased competitiveness and less cooperation - more individualistic countries were associated with greater social capital – people are more trusting and engaged with others o social capital defined as interpersonal trust, civic engagement, time spent with friends - some contexts foster cooperative behaviours and some do not Culture and Intergroup Relations Ingroups and Outgroups - ingroups include individuals with shared experiences and an anticipated future that produce sense of intimacy, familiarity, and trust - outgroups include individuals who lack these qualities (listed above) o tend to infrahumanize outgroups (belief that others are less human) - group entitativity: people perceive groups as real entities and not just collection of individuals
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