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chp 6.doc

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William Huggon

PSY322 - Chapter 6 Social Stigma - normal - mainstream in your attitudes, dress, appearance and personality. - people try to fit in with the majority, so they will not be singled out for ridicule or treated negatively by others. - stigma - referred to the unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations. - a stigmatized person is one is “reduced in our minds from a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounter one”. - stigma are characteristics that mark the individual as deviant, flawed, limited or generally undesirable. - Goffman noted 3 types of stigmas - abominations of the body - blemishes of individual character - tribal stigmas of race, nation, and religion - Group identification - people differ in the degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group. - high identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their group even with a negative image. they derive their self-esteem from their identification as a group member, hence more likely to seek collective strategies against group threat. - low identifiers are much more likely to disassociate themselves from the group, especially when it has a negative image. they don’t derive self- esteem from being a group member. - low identifiers are much more individualistic and opportunistic in that they will only identify themselves with the group when it would positively affect their social identity. - Stereotype threat - stereotype affect’s one’s self concept and self image. - in addition, due to stereotype threat, stereotyped groups will engage in performance limiting behavior in order to provide them with a ready excuse for their expected poor performance on the stereotype-relevant dimension. - stereotype’s negative implications can impair one’s ability to behave in counter-stereotypic way (opposing stereotypes). - the effects of stereotype threat are especially likely to occur in people who strongly identify with the group about which the stereotype exists and in individuals who are self-conscious of their stigmatized status. - stereotype lift - non-stigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement when they engage in a downward comparison between themselves and a member of a stereotyped outgroup. - people high in stereotype vulnerability - the tendency to expect, perceive, and be influenced by stereotypes about one’s social category, tended to be the least in touch with the quality of their performances on a stereotype relevant task. - stereotype-treat effects can be reduced significantly when people from the stereotyped group are individuated, in these cases they outperform their non-individuated counterparts. - stereotype content model - says that many stereotypes and prejudice can be located along 2 dimensions: competence and warmth. - stereotypes about one’s group can impair one’s performance on salient ego- and identity relevant tasks. - although stereotype-threatened individuals are motivated to do well on tasks, they tend to be inefficient in their work, largely because of their worry that their performance may confirm a stereotype of their group. - disidentification - individuals disengage their identity from the achievement domain in question, such that their self-esteem and self of self-competence is preserved and shielded from the negative effects of associating identity with performance on a stereotype-relevant dimension. - disidentification process allows the stigmatized o retain their self-esteem. - disidentified stigmatized individuals agree that the stereotype threat dimension is important, it is not important for them a
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