PSY322 - Chapter 6
- normal - mainstream in your attitudes, dress, appearance and personality.
- people try to fit in with the majority, so they will not be singled out for ridicule or treated
negatively by others.
- stigma - referred to the unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations.
- a stigmatized person is one is “reduced in our minds from a whole and usual
person to a tainted, discounter one”.
- stigma are characteristics that mark the individual as deviant, flawed, limited or
- Goffman noted 3 types of stigmas
- abominations of the body
- blemishes of individual character
- tribal stigmas of race, nation, and religion
- Group identification
- people differ in the degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group.
- high identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their
group even with a negative image. they derive their self-esteem from
their identification as a group member, hence more likely to seek
collective strategies against group threat.
- low identifiers are much more likely to disassociate themselves from the
group, especially when it has a negative image. they don’t derive self-
esteem from being a group member.
- low identifiers are much more individualistic and opportunistic in
that they will only identify themselves with the group when it would
positively affect their social identity.
- Stereotype threat
- stereotype affect’s one’s self concept and self image.
- in addition, due to stereotype threat, stereotyped groups will engage in
performance limiting behavior in order to provide them with a ready excuse for
their expected poor performance on the stereotype-relevant dimension.
- stereotype’s negative implications can impair one’s ability to behave in
counter-stereotypic way (opposing stereotypes).
- the effects of stereotype threat are especially likely to occur in people who strongly
identify with the group about which the stereotype exists and in individuals who are
self-conscious of their stigmatized status.
- stereotype lift - non-stigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement
when they engage in a downward comparison between themselves and a
member of a stereotyped outgroup.
- people high in stereotype vulnerability - the tendency to expect, perceive, and be
influenced by stereotypes about one’s social category, tended to be the least in touch
with the quality of their performances on a stereotype relevant task.
- stereotype-treat effects can be reduced significantly when people from the stereotyped
group are individuated, in these cases they outperform their non-individuated
- stereotype content model
- says that many stereotypes and prejudice can be located along 2 dimensions:
competence and warmth.
- stereotypes about one’s group can impair one’s performance on salient
ego- and identity relevant tasks.
- although stereotype-threatened individuals are motivated to do well on
tasks, they tend to be inefficient in their work, largely because of their
worry that their performance may confirm a stereotype of their group.
- individuals disengage their identity from the achievement domain in question,
such that their self-esteem and self of self-competence is preserved and
shielded from the negative effects of associating identity with performance on a
- disidentification process allows the stigmatized o retain their self-esteem.
- disidentified stigmatized individuals agree that the stereotype threat dimension
is important, it is not important for them a