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PSY322- Study Sheet.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Heather V.Fritzley

1What are stereotypes What are the key features of stereotypes Is stereotyping necessarily a bad thingA stereotype is the beliefs and opinions about the characteristics attributes and behaviours of the members of a groupKey aspects 1They are shared beliefs that frequently instill through culture 2They are accurate and inaccurate kernel of truth 3They are descriptive describe group members and prescriptive inform how group members should behave 4They can be positive and negativepositive stereotypes can allow for more opportunity and it reduces cognitive load 2What is prejudice Do people who consider themselves unprejudiced hold negative attitudes toward outgroups If so what are their reactions to those attitudesPrejudice is an attitude directed towards people because they are members of a specific social group You can still hold negative attitudes while considering yourself unprejudiced implicitIt causes discomfort and unease 3What is discrimination What are the four levels discussed in the first class Define them and provide an example of eachDiscrimination is treating people differently because they belong to a different group Types 1Interpersonal discrimination between individuals holding beliefs that the Irish are alcoholics 2Organizational discrimination within formal organizations government and corporation hiring policy3Institutional discrimination within social institutions family religion and education Jim Crow laws 4Cultural discrimination within art language morals customs beliefs etc standards of beautyBarbie 4Discuss the relationship between stereotyping prejudice and discriminationStereotypes are based on cognitionbeliefsPrejudice is based attitudes and affectDiscrimination is based on behavior5Compare and contrast implicit and explicit prejudice Which one is related to priming and what is primingImplicit prejudice is prejudice attitudes that are without conscious awarenessExplicit prejudice is prejudice attitudes that you are conscious aware of Priming is increased sensitivity to a stimulus due to prior exposure Priming is related to implicit prejudice 6Discuss Devine 1989 and her study relating to implicit stereotypingExperiment 1 knowledgeHigh and low prejudice individuals are equally knowledgeable of the content of stereotypesThe difference is that that high prejudice people accept stereotypes and low prejudice people reject them Experiment 2 primingPrimed white participants with black stereotypes or neutral words implicit association test Asked participants to read a story about an interaction between a man and shopkeeper Then asked participants to rate the manStereotypes were automatically activated in both high and low prejudice people Experiment 3 controlled processing
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