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Lecture 2

PSY341 Lecture 2 Notes.docx

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Hywel Morgan

PSY341 Lecture 2 - July 7, 2013 Normal and Abnormal Development ~late~ ● Some forms are inherent (e.g. Huntington’s Disease -> gene is found!) ● during birth, anoxia can lead to mental retardation ● Built-in components that affect development: ○ Genetics ○ Neurochemistry (e.g. ADHD) ○ Neurophysiology -> parts of the brain not working properly/damaged ● BOTH nature and nurture components to behaviour General Principles of Development (in childhood, Normal Development): 1. Principle of Direction a. “Development proceeds from head to tail” ■ the head developing much more quickly than the rest of the body ■ at birth, head to tail is 1:1 ■ adults, 1:12 ■ *cognitive and neurological development in years 1-3 are outpacing other physiological developments ■ “the development of the individual looks a lot like evolution” (e.g. in embryo, we had a tail) b. “Development proceeds from the central axis to the periphery” (limbs, arms, legs) 2. Principle of Progression a. “Development is from general to specific” ■ e.g. pain reflex (BEST EXAMPLE) ● a very mild pain in the back of the hand to an infant has a very general reflect -> withdraw ● built-in hardwired reflex to approach and withdraw ● the pain reflex looks very different in infancy and adulthood (infants -> involves entire body recoiling ; adults -> just the hand) b. Asynchronous growth ■ all of a sudden! ■ e.g. puberty! or acquisition of language 3. Principle of Personal and Social Growth a. “Development goes from undifferentiated and dependent -> distinctive and self- dependent” ■ mental retardation does not only involve intellect but also self-dependence (adaptive behaviour) ■ e.g. of study where infants put into pink or blue pjs, cannot differentiate between the boys and girls 4. Principle of Maturation and Readiness a. “qualitative physiological alteration in size/growth MUST occur and the brain MUST change in order for a child to take on new cognitive tasks” (e.g. learning to talk, do math, etc) ■ also means that trying to teach a child a cognitive task before they are ready is pointless! ■ maturation for cognitive tasks Factors Affecting Development ● Heredity and Environment ○ Seems that they affect each other! ○ H->E ■ e.g. predispositions like proto-personality (temperament!) ■ e.g. difficult child -> neglect/negative affect from parents -> even worst environment conditions for the child ○ E->H ■ for a lot of psychopathology, a lot of people seem to inherit genetics that are dispositions for some disorders. The environment turns that gene on. ■ e.g. schizophrenia (known to have a genetic component) ● Temperament ○ proto-personality! ○ 1) shyness/extroversion ○ 2) cholic-y child (the “difficult” child v.s. the “easy” child ○ 3) slow to warm up (a child that becomes an easy child) ● Parent-Child Interaction ○ Attachment! ■ it is extremely important for a child to form an attachment with primary caregiver ■ if an infant is unable to form the bond/attachment (secure, cognitive, emotional, social bond) with ANY primary caregiver, the consequences for both physical and cognitive are SEVERE (“failure to thrive”) ● critical period in the first 2 years of life ● they will develop a disorder. these people will not develop normally ■ DSM-IV -> “Reactive Attachment Disorder” ● 3 year olds taking knifes to threaten people going near them ● treatable through significant social interaction ■ these are children that go into having Conduct Disorder ● treatment:social intervention (educating parents on how to interact) ● if not treated, becomes adult antisocial personality disorder ○ Child as Stimulus ■ the child affects (stimulates) the environment as much as the environment is affecting it ■ if the child is difficult, parents naturally react negatively...BUT the right way is to react with patience and understanding ■ parents should mold their parenting style ○ Effects of Mothering ■ sounds and touch of mother seem to affect later developmental well-being ■ child tends to/preferentially seek the scent and sound of the mother (when stressed) ■ food, safety, comfort ■ this can be seen in other species as well
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