PSYC 235 Study Guide - Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Autism Spectrum, Separation Anxiety Disorder

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 235
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Severe & lasting impairment in: social interactions, communications, adaptive
behaviors, Interests & activities
1) Autism: significant impairment in social interactions & communications by
restricted patterns of behaviour, interests & activities
A. At least 6 items from (1),(2),(3) with at least 2 from (1) and 1 each from (2) & (3)
1) Qualitive impairment in social interaction by at least 2 of:
a. Marked impairment in multiple nonverbal behaviours (eye contact, facial
expressions, body gestures) to regulate social interaction
b. Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level
c. Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests with other people
d. Lack of social/emotional reciprocity
2) Qualitative impairments in communication by at least 1 of:
a. Delay in/lack development of spoken language (no hand gestures)
b. Difficulty initiating & maintaining conversations
c. Stereotyped & repetitive use of language / idiosyncratic language
d. Lack of make believe play/imitation of others at develop. Level
3) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns in behaviour, interest & activities:
a. Preoccupation with parts of objects that are abnormal
b. Inflexible adherence to specific nonfunctional routines/rituals
c. Stereotyped & repetitive motor mannerisms
d. Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
e. Encompassing preoccupation with 1/more restricted patterns of interest
that is abnormal in intensity or focus
B. Experiences delays/abnormal functioning in at least 1 of (1,2,3) before age 3
C. Disturbance not due to Rett’s disorder or childhood disintegrative disorder
Statistics:
2-20/10000 people OR 1/160 births
IQ under 35 autism is more prevalent in females/ higher = more in men
70-80% mental retardation; rest do not
½ are in moderate profound mental retardation, ¼ in mild range
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Biological Dimensions- Medical Conditions: congenital rubella (German measles),
tuberous sclerosis cytomegalovirus, and difficulties in pregnancy/labor
Genetics:
90% of MZ twins = cognitive impairment/ 70% have ASD compared to DZ
twins
Not 1 genetic cause b/c it is not 1 disorder
Genes coding of abnormal neurodevelopment, resulting in symptoms of the
autism spectrum
Families with 1 autistic child = 3-5% of another child with disorder
Incidence rate: 0.0002-0.0005%
Neurobiological influences
¾ people w/ autism show levels of mental retardation -> 30-75% display
neurological abnormalities *clumsiness/abnormal posture/gait
Suggest autism is physical in origin -> abnormalities of cerebellum including
reduced sized
Psychological & Social Dimensions
Past theories/beliefs:
Historically seen as failed parenting -> cold, perfectionistic, aloof (high
economic status with higher IQ)
Based on unusual speech patterns avoid 1st person
Lack of self-awareness
Difference: social deficiencies, socialization & communication -> biological
Rise in Autism:
Increase in recognition?
“Male” brain
Vaccines?
Environmental Toxins?
Older parents?
Psychosocial Treatments: successful using systematic & dedication teaching 1
a specific skill
Early = ego development
Behavioral Approach: can learn & be taught some skills they lack
-> overlap in treatment with mental retardation
Communication: shaping & discrimination training to teach nonspeaking children
to imitate others
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Reinforce a child with food/praise for making any sound while watching
-> Only reinforce if they made a sound after being asked “Say ball”
(discrimination training)
Sign language & vocal output devices
Timing & Setting for Treatment:
Early intervention efforts -> behaviour treatment for communication/social
for about 40 hours a week
Regular classroom placed children = highest level of improvement
Integration is an important factor
2) Asperger’s Disorder
Social deficits similar to autism WITHOUT
a) Significant language delays or deficits
b) Cognitive impairment
Others features:
a) Stilted speech
b) Eccentricities (memorizing arcane facts)
Statistics:
Prevalence = uncertain approx. 1-36/10000
More often in males than females
Treatment:
Instilling Social Skills
Nonverbal Skills training
3) Rett’s Disorder Relatively rare = 1/12000-15000 births
1st 5months normal and normal head circumference at birth but then
deceleration of growth between 5-48 months
Loss of motor & social skills already learned/ poor development of new ones
Treatment: focus on teaching self-help & communication skills to reduce problem
4) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Normal development for first 2 years followed by significant loss of skills
between 2-10 years
1/100000 births, 60x less common than autism
More frequently in males
Treatment: behavioral intervention to regain lost skills & behavioral &
pharmacological treatments to reduce problem behaviour
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Document Summary

Iq under 35 autism is more prevalent in females/ higher = more in men. Are in moderate profound mental retardation, in mild range. Biological dimensions- medical conditions: congenital rubella (german measles), tuberous sclerosis cytomegalovirus, and difficulties in pregnancy/labor. 90% of mz twins = cognitive impairment/ 70% have asd compared to dz twins. Not 1 genetic cause b/c it is not 1 disorder. Genes coding of abnormal neurodevelopment, resulting in symptoms of the autism spectrum. Families with 1 autistic child = 3-5% of another child with disorder. People w/ autism show levels of mental retardation -> 30-75% display neurological abnormalities *clumsiness/abnormal posture/gait. Suggest autism is physical in origin -> abnormalities of cerebellum including reduced sized. Historically seen as failed parenting -> cold, perfectionistic, aloof (high economic status with higher iq) Based on unusual speech patterns avoid 1st person. Difference: social deficiencies, socialization & communication -> biological. Psychosocial treatments: successful using systematic & dedication teaching 1 a specific skill.

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