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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Bryant

March 28 12 SecularizationMarkers ENLIGHTENMENT over superstitionVoltaire Rousseau et alSecularizationprocessnot over nightfeatures conflict between secularity and religion SCIENCE over faithscience becomes increasingly the source of authorityscientific principles at workREASON over dogmano more insisting on sacred truthsreasoning throughTECHNOLOGY and thisworldly fulfillment afterlife is remote devaluedFor the Enlightenment thinkers traditional religion was a dated superstition a product of humanitys infancy and ignorance with the rise of Science practical reason and technological progress would displace or supplant the religious worldviewOccupies the role to fulfill needs and desires instead of looking for sacred or supernatural assistance Marxreligion as social alienationFreudreligion as illusion wishfulfillmentWeberRationalizationall aspects of life moving to formal meansends efficiencies and Disenchantmentthe world is calculable manageable through technicalrational means of organization bureaucracy social relations based on law contract decline of the supernatural as a regulative framework of understanding and actionModern societies were moving increasingly in the direction of formal rationality The need for standardizing arrangements in societySubstantive rationalitythe outcome is betterFormal rationalitysimply operate according to rules Earlier forms of justice is more relevant Sacred scriptures lost sacred aura through critical analysisapplied the same thing to the history of Christianitylosing lusterScholars began to situate religious traditions in wider contextsex Noah story synonymous with older storiesRobin Hortonhistorically there have been two major aspectsconcerns of religious life1 manipulationie explanationpredictioncontrol as explanatory systemsaccounts of why things are the way they are how they come about etcreligious worldviews offer a comprehension of realityie they make a kosmosand thus afford us a measure of practical directioncontrol in our dealings with the everyday spacetime world
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