Methods for the study religion; presuppositions of the western. The biases emerging from the period of the enlightenment: concerned with the application of reason, the application of scientific method to all phenomena. Max mueller (scholar): early sanskrit (language of ancient india) scholar: translating & editing the sacred books of the east , purposed that the oldest religious scriptures in the world were the vedas (belonging to hindu tradition) As a kind of reverend worship of attitude to fire, to the sky, to the rain. Phenomena came to be represented as supernatural deity: concluded that region is a kind of disease of language, human beings developed religion because they were too weak and ignorant about the forces of nature that surrounded them. 20th century: the focus of religion shifts away from where it originates and to analyzing the function of religion in society; what"s the purpose of religion in society www. notesolution. com.