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RLG210Y1 Lecture Notes - Omen, Barbarian Kingdoms, Novation

Course Code
Joseph Bryant

of 6
Jan 19th 2011
- What is the sec church that Weber mapped out? How does he use that model for religious
history?- new religious movement begins by a charismatic person. They are inspired by virtuoso
very intense because you are not satisfied with tradition. Challenging religious religion to gets
you in trouble so you must have confidence in challenging it. Weber said new religious
movement begins with intensity and excitement, but if they are to grow there needs to be an
increase of followers. Being more tolerant and open, and weber said that you can see that kind
of transition from a sec religiosity. Sec reliousity means individuality that they are saved , but in
church religiosity its more of the organization you have sacred texts, holiness. We use Christian
for this models such as being baptized being sealed until Jesus arrivies, so that you will have
- This however caused a pressuer within the movement because the followers were not
successful wining followers from the jews and did not fit the profile of what the massayah was
to be which was to be successful. So hard to convince the jews. Preaching a crucified Masaya is a
tumbling block but some jews found this message appealing so early Jesus followers had to
debate that in order to be a follower must you not be a jew?
- The minimum requirements to follow jesus was no adultery or fortification-no sex outside of
marriage, dietary requirements(most jew didn’t understand so they thought it meant to stay
away from bloodshed), the other requirements were (jews were having doubts that jesus is not
returning and people are dying and still jesus has not returned)
- So the delay of the peruziyah (jesus‘s second coming) was a problem- people were doubting,
leaving the true path, going into satin’s order.
- So if Christians beign to break the seal of the purity they get what chances are that jesus will
return? People are starting to despair their salvation.
- The Sheppard of hormaz- this text offered: a chance to be cleansed and if you broke the seal of
baptism you will be forgiven again. This is after being baptized when you commit sin it will be
gone away but must be done because Sheppard of hormaz said that jesus was around the
corner. The problem with this long term thing was that he didn’t come back! So the next stage
of the penitential system was that it was just a window of time so the next step was a formal
sacrament of cleansing called the pensantial secreumta the second cleansing. a back up
cleansing being only a onetime thing- you can’t kepp coming back for forgiveness, and this
showed you are shameful you did not follow the promises.
- By year 200 we have tis second penance! And the problem with this was if you told now that
there is a second sacrament to wipe your sins and that it is your only one you will tell your self
will when can I use this now? (not only Christians delay being baptized renouncing satin must be
a conscious commitment) so tertalian complains that Christians are not only delaying their
batisim but they are doing this because they want time to do sins and they are weak in faith
thinking last minute is better to become purified and are not confident that they can remain
becoming pure. The risk of delaying this is that you do not know when jesus will come (like a
thief in a night) or that when you will die. So chrisitians juggled this: should I get batized early or
wait but what if jesus come earlier?)
- So around 216 , 217 we see another modification to the penance system- which was callistus
bishop of Rome issued a ruling that the church could forgive this sin of adultery and
fornification! This was crucial because this sin was one of the mortal sins. So the early Christians
worked with mortal sins and minor sins, what made them mortal though? Sins against god and
holy spirit that you got during baptism being a gift from the holy spirit of god making you live in
the spirit. But if you committed mortal sin the holy spirit of god would leave you and you’d do
back to your dead self. So this now being a huge change. (callistus was said to have said these
things but there are no record) .In roman church there however was a rupture Hippolytis the
leader in the roman church-found this innovation so corrupting so he is elected as a bishop.
- Christians in the time of chaliistus are mixed while some intense and less intense. So mass
religious type find challistus better because they might commit adultery and would want
forgiveness, while hyliptos finds this wrong.
- The next step in this process in chritianity is in the middle of the third centaury this was more
a crisis period of the roman empire beginning to collapse institutionally, there are plaques, the
political system is losing stability, emperors come and go, money is becoming worthless, and to
try t deal with that they take out the silver and gold out of the coins, and one of the emperors
by the name of heresies being a hard traditionalist and believes that the empire is going
through this crisis because he believes that they have lost tradition , and their old beliefs are
becoming out of fashion. The reason while they were the greatest empire before was because
they were the greatest religious believer of all time. So roman regarded their empire as a gift
from god and when a society goes through turmoil they begin to revive their religion ad
tradition, so heresies begins to build new temples, he issues a decree ordering all other
inhabitant of empires go to temple and make scarifies to the god and must sign a certificate by
officials to prove that they have done this. Everyone except the Jews and up to know we have
preserved up to 50 of these certificates which would say give the name of the person saying I on
this day went to the shrine making sacrifice to gods and I do it know in your present so please
sign it now, and roman officials would keep a record of it. So the Christians of the roman empire
found this to be a adultery saying that I have always scarifies to the gods, so these chrisitans
were to bear witness to testify and there are testaments in the passage saying if you renounce
me in men I will renounce you in front of my dad, so to pretend that they have made scarifies all
their life is bad too so now 2 sins they were forced to commit- they had to eat meat, commit
adultery, and had to get a certificate, so what happened was they made a distinction between
the fallen and the standing. The less intense Christians were less likely to break and surcome to
this pressure, and this is the first time the roman empire is trying to smoke out the Christians,
and forcing them by abandoning Christianity as being a superstition being a perverted practice.
They believed the Christians were regarded in a negative light and we know from the Christian
writers that whenever a crisis struck they would think that it was all the Christians fault. So they
referred to Christians as atheist(not believing in the gods) A problem- so a majority of Christians
did go to the temple and do this scarifies but those that had money were bribing officials to not
do this. A lot of Christians were killed because they were not complying
- A problem for the church because a majority of the Christians were complying to this. But they
were helped when the heresies passed away so the persecution passed out. So after heresies
dies in battle, many Christians who committed this adultery came back to the church begging for
forgiveness. And the leaders were having a trouble with this because if they were to forgive
them they would have to lower their standards in which they did this before.
- The moderates(Catholics-universal) the majority- so the mainstream beigns to forgive the sin of
adultery and appothesis- this therefore creates separation because hard liners aren’t going to go
along with this the elder of the church(novationist) this is the greatest sin and there is no
power given to priests to forgive that sin. Within the roman community novation was elected as
their bishop. Novation claimed that the person was sitting on the throne was himself an
adulterer and apostate. So traditionalist rallied with novation therefore making him the bishp. S
now you have 2 bishops in rome. So now chrisitianity spilits into this 2 groups- the main stream
group(universal) and the group headed by novation. The novation regarded themselves as the
pure, sins like adultery cannot be forgiven. So 2 very powerful chrisitian communities form , the
church of the catharoy (novationist church that was called by the cathaloic because they didn’t
regard the other group as pure
- The group with more power are called the orthodox saying we are right and to discret other
groups they will call them the navationist heretics and if they call themselves pure they will
mock them.
- The church of cathadroy(navationist) they build their own churches across te empire and took
25% chrisitians with them taking all the pure hard core traditionilists and that’s why they are
called “pure” and the survive up to the arab conquest and disappear when islam comes. But
they are a minority within the Christianity picture because majority stayed with the catholic
- The year 303 end of third century powerful leaders come to rome such as Diacletion and he
divdes the empire in half to be more organized.
- Christianity still continues to grow and lots more are becoming Christians.
- Diecletion- in his capital city the roman priests are carrying sacrifices and receive omen. They
say there are too many chrisitians around upsetting the god. So diecletion says that Christians
must be reduced. So dieacletion sends out officials to close down the churches, and order the
Christian leader to burn their scriptures, and must give a list of the people in the church so they
can be persecuted. This goes on for 10 years and dieacletion retires and expects this to go on,
but this does not work. A guy by the name of Constantine wants to reunite the empire striking
civil war.
- The roman state tried to round up the officials not those that followed, confiscated properties,
and scriptures. Some of the chrisitian leaders refused to hand over the scriptures, they
sometimes handed in the wrong book while other leader did hand it over and brake. Also a
number of the leaders run away, which creates the last thing: melitianist- who takes over the
church of Alexandria when the bishop runs away, so he keeps the church going, he resists
efforts to arrest him. He calls his church the church of the of mourderer, because they are
risking not giving up.
- So once constintene becomes powerful he makes a deal with the east end called the eaten of
Milan- a peace treaty between him and his opponent empror)
- So he is pro chrisitian and when he defeats a rival in rome he becomes more open to chrisitian.