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RLG229H1 Lecture Notes - White Bread, Cowpox, Smallpox

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Jan 20, 2011 Life< Death , and disease:
- 2 big views on population such as von sonnenfels- argued that a large population is a good thing,
more comfort and security such as spain and france, but today places such as china we can see
more ppl does not mean more things.
- Thomas Malthus-concenrned about the lives of the poor, and said unchecked population growth
can be disasterous, like food supply does not grow at the same rate as population which would
mean malunutrition and starvation his point was to prevent this from happening , he did not
get spoeken about a lot
- Malthus was more right when he said more population outstrips the food supply
- Demography- we are stuck with estimations because we don’t have records, in 1801 britain
came with census which became a bit more accurate , records of people, not to provide social
services but to get money out of them by taxes. Perish registers- to get number of households,
such as birth , death and marriages. This works for large population because most of them had
to belong to a state church which causes a problem for those that do not belong to the state
church. Many places in 16th century the state put duties on perish, so in 16th century we had a
better sense of population but when war came it destroyed this record. The local perish priests
kept these records so how well they were kept depended on the person keeping it.
- 1620-1720- population rose enormously but Europe doubled in 16th century
- For first half of 17 th century the very high birth date was with high death rate , -beginning of
17th cent war and plaque caused a lot of destruction
- People migrate beause they believe there other places for food and growth
- Spain was experiencing decline in global trade
- Only England escaped the population decline in 16 century
- Germany is not doing so well and suffered the most from the war and immigration
- After 1650 its more a rebound-trying to get their population to increase, trade is moving,
- Developments after 1650 is more recovering
- 1695-99 soctland experienced bad harvest which is shortage of food causing declining in
- Rest of Europe other than England does not escape the trap, they have poor harvest, there is
famine and disease and towns suffer the most from disease
- Poland and eastern Europe did have problems there was a lot war fought this land becomes
bodies and hard to make crops
- Family life- in 18 century periods child got married at 13 and had kids, shakesprear is too blame
because juilet married at 13
- Problems with this is that you don’t enter puberty and cant bear children when marrying early
and most didn’t mesterate till 17 years old. More than 85% of peasents married and some
didn’t, female fertility was 2 years between births, 5 births within family, half of them die , firt 2
years of marriage female fertility was high
- Eastern European people married earlier 6 years then western so they had more time to have
- You marry when you can afford to
- In northern Europe and central was unique a nuclear family children were raised by step
parents because men died earlier and women from birth
- Eastern Europe- they tend to marry early because they did not carry about independence and
produce more children and less concerened about economic activities but western Europe want
to have money before the marry.
- Age of marriage- illegitimate children was very low, but some increase in 18th century, and there
is strong social control such as churches, guilds, landlord-they can delay marriage
- North and central Europe encourages authority figures to delay marriage
- In Europe 10-25v% didn’t marry
- In east and south they are getting married younger, but problem was dowery and economic
roles, the church provided dowries for poor girls, but you needed dowery to enter marriage
- Nunaries- women can have control of their lives without men getting in the way, some were
forced to enter it
- A lot of mystery in procreation in 18th cent increase in population but not know why, arguments
on family planning, there is more sex , there were condoms but also uneffictive birth controls
were used, births rates were not all that changeable.
- Life cycle poverty- you need help when you marry and have first children- children are
unproductive cant add value to your life until age 7, if you are widow you too are tend to be
- The poor are not a distinct group- can be anyone,
- Urban centres-majority lived in country sides and city drove people away cities make life
worse for everyone, high bread price because you don’t grow food in city, high trash, makes
more disease and more death
- Paris and London a lot of growth in cities and are death traps
- Price of food- influence population. People in modern area did not have variety of food so when
price of bread went high they had to eat less. With poor harvest, price of bread rises, people
lose jobs and people must replace bread with entrails of slauthered of animals, their dignity was
respectable level is now shattered, town officials are not adpetable to charity, the youngest are
to die from malnutrition , their wives are beggers now, women and daughter continue to live on
but that family unit is destroyed. When the family starve to death , and other family who had
income and had quite enough could have helped this family but didn’t so there was social
- Ice age- 1920,1960, temp was 1.5 degree lower, volcanic ereputions, we have different records
in decline of agriculture activity, short term weather hazards, hails, this continues until 18th cent-
food is class based and effected the poor more
- White bread was more praised and leaves bakers to food alteration to make the bread white
and throw other substances since it was scrace
- Disease- plaque in going to stop and not going to hit Europe at same time. There is going to be
outbreaks occurring in 1603, and fire in London does not stop it, plaque kills a 9th of the
population. Plaque had effect on life expectancy, if you live in northern Europe and live up to 40
you can even go onto 60
- In barcolana the plaque broke down the social order, the rich escaped the quarantine
- Quarantine- esbecilly in Italian cities
- Medicine was to sta awy from because they ended to kill you and too expensive
- Small pox- kills 400 000 europeans including monarchs , there are vaccines by end of 18th cent,
Edward jenner gives vaccine, Voltaire records that 60 percent that got small pox dies from it , in
England there were several experimenting with vaccines, so Edward started vaccinating us with
cow pox
- War- 30 years war creates population drop and die from disease, leaves germany with low
agriculture productivity, disease comes, grain supplies suffer, in mid century there will be civil
wars in eng , france, and spain-people battling on your land so you ant harvest so problem on
food supply, armies not nice they take what they want from population, destroying population
- Key themes- the countries escaping mathusian tarp are the most successful, those are conturies
with different social structure. The English escape the Malthusian tarp and make a lot of money
and kill a lot of people making empires, but france did not succeed with this, they had a large
population but could not feed tem, western Europe they will no more wide spread famine,
famine is less there , there is more agriculture but eastern Europe dosent such as southern
agriculture they have low nutrition level, they are fading away from the English experience, bad
harvest and cant combat them like western and northern Europe. We have a decline in plaque
and don’t know why
- Escaping Malthusian trap creates states to prosper, some don’t make to ag 20
- So we should be gald for modern sanitation