5. March 13 ENV222 lecture outline.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
School of Environment
Stephen Scharper

18) March 13 Current actions: States, international Vogler, John (2008). "Chapter 20: Environmental Issues." In John Baylis, Steve Smith and Patricia Owens, eds. The Globalization of World Politics:An introduction to international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 350-368 ▯ Lecture outline ▯ 1. Context of global politics . the legacy of 19th c. European imperialism; colonies become states . addressing collective-action problems: establishment of UN system . bipolar stability of the Cold War period, 1945-1989 . 1989 fall of USSR, "triumph of capitalism" . the rise of China, current multi-polar world ▯ 2. The need for global co-operation on environment . reading p. 379 describes truly global areas, in which no state has jurisdiction; high seas, ocean floor,Antarctica, outer space . issues which cross national borders; p. 377 "When animals, fish, water or [long-range air transport] pollution cross national frontiers the need for international cooperation arises"; includes humans moving creatures and goods, eg trade in endangered species, GMO foods, hazardous wastes . issues located purely within state borders but which exist in great number and so collectively pose a global threat, eg desertification, loss of potable water, deforestation ▯ 3. The problem of state sovereignty . a powerful norm says the state rules within its borders and is not subject to any rule from above - it is "sovereign" . the state is today the dominant organizational form in the realm of governance; all "nations" aspire to become states - eg, Quebec, Catalonia, Slovakia, Czech Republic . state can only rule within its borders, but the firm operates globally; the market has globalized, but governance has not . the hegemonic states, eg US, Russia, China, in particular resist any form of global governance limiting their freedom of action; smaller powers may welcome such governance as a check on the powers of those hegemons, but they do not ▯ 4. The problem of the North-South divide . differing interests; while Northern countries of EU, NorthAmerica and others may have some concern for global environmental issues, priorities of Southern countries inAfrica, south- eastAsia are: 1) poverty, to be addressed through industrialization/development; 2) the imbalance of economic and military power with the North; 3) local environmental issues, like healthy drinking water . 1972 Stockholm conference p. 374; Southern insistence that problems of global poverty and environment had to be addressed together - latter could not be solved by foregoing development in the South (which led to 1987 Brundtland concept of sustainable development); see p. 378 Principle 21, states are sovereign but also have duty not to pollute other states . in turn led to the principle that North should assist South with costs of global environmental protection . 1992 Rio Conference, creation of Global Environmental Facility as the body for distributing funds from North to South . today, the problem is even more urgent; China and India are rapidly increasing coal- fired electricity capacity, to fuel economic growth for growing populations, undercutting any greenhouse gas reductions from switch to renewable energy in Europe and elsewhere ▯ 5. The current system of global environmental governance (GEG) GEG is defined as attempts to co-ordinate state action, in the absence of any global government with legitimate jurisdiction to influence actions of states. ▯ Consists of three major elements: . multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) amongst states, eg 1997 Kyoto Protoc
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