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Lecture 11

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University of Toronto St. George
Monica Boyd

Lecture 11: Gendering Immigrant Offspring Who is immigrant offspring: Terminology: 5categories - 1st generation: are ppl who arrive in their adulthood, - „Foreign born‟ - 1.5th generation refers to ppl come as kids, before age 13, (or15) , arrive before moving into adulthood, get some school Some ppl came as children, young enough to spend lots of time to go to destination‟s school, integrate and live same life style, school as good socializer, pick up all sorts of info how society work, learning the way Canada works - 2generation-born in Canada with 2 foreign born parents - 2.5th generation, born in Canada with 1parent foreign born, another parent is Canadian born, knows Canada well rd - 3 generation refers to grandchildren of the migrated ppl, who often have entirely integrated into the destination country, become a pure local o Immigration offspring- includes 1.5 generation, 2 genration or 2.5 th nd Study often focus on 1.5 and 2 generation o For long time, no good study based on survey b/c we don't ask ppl where their parents born. So, you can‟t category ppl into 1.5 o 2001 survey - ask Birth place of parents, with some info give, th th  1/4 of Canadian pop are 1.5 -2.5 population - reflects centuries of migration  Kids under age 15, 1/3 of kids is either 1.5 -2.5 generation,  In greater Toronto GTA 66% pop under15 age is 1.5 -2.5 generation th Big issue as ethnic unclaims, kids come to school without ready to be taught, not fluent in English coz of their family background, speak home language at home th Immigrants come either in family, bring 1.5 generation with them, fertility rate immigrants tend t be a bit higher than Canadian born. Integration does take time, integration seen as being respectful and reserve individualistic character like religion, dietary habit... but simultaneously part of Canadian society in foreign institution manner, having civil rights- right to vote – political participation and economy participation- working for their livelihood... st Integration takes long time, for 1 generation used to take 10 yrs for them to have salary crossover but recent worry in now economy, crossover will never occur; worry that catch up will never occur but in reality there is a cross over time but with focus on the immigrants offspring, might take more than 1generation to settle and integrate. Ppl suggest that immigrates never catch up as we are a highly racially, ethnically stratified society; being rewarded based on their race- how they look rather than to look at the kind of kills they have. Then interests of 1.5 &2 th ndgeneration also motivated by asking „do we have a meritorious society- reward based on skills?‟ 3 concerns with respect to the labor market integration of immigrant offspring 1. New origin country raise possibility of racialization and racial barriers; Concern over 2 ndgeneration, come from recent waves of migration which change in terms of origin, origin country characters of declining EU origin and increasing Asian origin as concern over racial barrier, classification of race social construction as radicalization of immigrants seen apparent in north American history. E.g. Irish seen distinct race and inferior than British, so biological inferior, don't need to give them equal rights... 2. Concern over stratification, - parental generation don't do well worry that 2 generation would fall off, but the reality shows that inspiring impact on 2nd generation as mobility highest inb/w kids whose parents don't do well- Common idea transferred that 'we did this for u have better opportunity' kids grow up aware or under pressure to do well, carry particular responsibility and duty to do well 3. Concern over 1.5 -2.5 generation as economy has changed, ppl in 50s as their parents come earlier, such upward mobility generated by booming economy, and heavy manufacturing industry e.g. Car making, but now the economy is dominated by service sector working with knowledge and skills , and mc-jobs maybe, in service economy, a bit tighter to achieve the similar upward mobility 4 emerging issues – growing up a) Who am I? Identities With a growingly racially distincted group, immigrants of obvious minority 1.5 th th -2.5 generation, having problem to navigate in the society and comes up with questions like who am I? , parents with values that are matching with that values my Canadian born friends have; what‟s my relationship with my parents? -identity formation, fractures be parents and kids are not perfectly mirroring/reflecting who they are.-negotiating identities b) Parental expectations – relational strain Gendered responsibilities immigrant children have in the household, burden increase on immigrants offspring are more likely to be involved in the household activities, do more house works to help navigating parents the world; - Translators – More likely to be translators for their parents - Mediators- children mediate or intervene on behalf of their parents during difficult financial, legal or other complicated transactions or situations - Surrogate parents( age important) – when children undertake nanny or parentlike activities Surrogate parents: - Tend to be older children, i.e. eldest child,regardless of gender,often took the lead role of assisting and caring for younger siblings - “transnational mothering" extends to roles of young female offspring, parents go back to origin country, so older kid become the "mother" , taking care and deal with the younger kids‟ issues - Elder daughters preferred -girls seen as more responsible than boys, so when it comes to banking, court, paying fees, more likely get involved, - dutiful daughter concept e..g when Philippine strategize who to migrate as worker often pick daughter with concept of more „dutiful daughter‟ - Becomes part of identity -gradually interacted, make them consciously what takes to be a good member of their group; identity out of parenting adequately care for what goes well for their sibling and sharpens self-identity as who you are and what you are supposed to do, what is the optimum way of giving as as Korean/Chinese and maybe going back origin country - Have to do everything, cook, get grocery, drive to school, tremendous responsibility Responsibilities of girls - Impact of additional responsibility debated - Greater responsibilities mean less time for school , other activity - Greater responsibilities leads to empowerment - it does say u get older of your age with more responsibility ,u forced to be a more traditional role as mothering also makes you more traditional Relational strain Change of power relations and employment of women outside home can contribute to higher levels of family conflicts or solidify them,(me you vs them; emphasis on family project-we are here, u have to help us) Causes the circling lagans, migration experience c) Intergenerational discord; parental control Parental controls-double standard  Different socialization for girls and boys in immigrant family Greater control over girls activities outside the house, attending parties, who are the friends spend time either friends, participate in after school programs  Parental restriction on clothing, language use of girls more than boys, makeup, Higher expectation by parents that daughter will embody tra
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