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SOC102 lecture on cities and minorities

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st Alexandra Zylka March 1 , 2011 SOC102 – Lecture 6 Cities and Minorities - Cities are places of frequent victimization - However for homosexuals, cities may represent safety. - Sociologists have been studying cities since Max Weber. - Cities are labs for cooperation and conflict. - Cities are about locations; cities and places. Victimology - The sociological study of victims of crime - Typically, victimization is greatest among the disadvantaged. - Characteristics associated with an increased risk of violent victimization in 2009 included o Self-identifying as homosexual o Having some form of activity limitation or physically handicapped o Identifying as an aboriginal person. The Victimization of Aboriginals - Violent incidents were much more likely to be committed against younger aboriginal people than they were against older counterparts - Aboriginal people are also much more likely to be victims of homicide than non- aboriginal people. - These high rates of victimization reflect the dangerous places many aboriginal people live. - Is it because of where they live? (Reserves, cities, territories, northern regions) Routine activities theory - Police-reported crime rates in the territories were substantially higher than rates in the rest of Canada. - (SLIDE) Hot spots for Young people - “Hot Spots” , are places where the risk of crime is highest due to the increased convergence of suitable targets and likely offenders. - Other factors also influence the high rates of victimization among aboriginals (and others) - For example, note that the aboriginal population is young compared to the rest of Canada. Places of Victimization - Poverty, unemployment, crowding, and youth are all associated with crime and victimization in the general population, as well as among aboriginals. - Workplaces are also hot spots of victimization - Nearly 1/5 of all incidents of violent victimization occurred in the victim’s workplace. Schools and Bullying - Schools can also be a hot spot for victimization - Even in grade nine, 45 percent of boys and 32 percent of girls reported havinh been bullied in the previous two months. - Canada, compared very poorly with many other countries for which data is available. Hate-motivated victimization - Canada consistently ranked at or below the middle of the international group. - As we have seen, the risks and dangers of victimization vary with location - However, location aside, some people are more likely than others to be victimized - In 4% (SLIDE) The location of risks - As mentioned, Canadians who self-identified as being aboriginal were three times likely as the non-aboriginal population to report being victims of violent victimization. - Experiences of victimization left a long term mark. - Sociologists have been studying the geographic location of risks since 1920s. The Chicago School of Sociology - Max Weber was the first sociologist to study the role of cities in social life - However, it was the CSS that first produced a major body of sociological work about cities in North America. - The Chicago approach to the sociology focused on locational patterning. City Ecology - In the typical city, different activities are concentrated in different areas, by income and lifestyle choices. - Population density – a characteristic feature of cities – can be a problem. - But it can also be a benefit, since it increases institutional completeness and social resources. Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (SLIDES) Social Disorganization in Chicago - Between 1860 and 1910, Chicago had grown from a population of 10,000 to over two million, mainly through an influx of immigrants. - This was associated with a growth of crime, poverty, illness, homelessness, poor housing conditions and bad working conditions. - Sociologists developed what came to be known as Social Disorganization Theory (SDT) o Emile Durkheim (First French prof of Sociology) o Suicide – psychological explanation (social patterning)  Found that suicide rates rose in rapidly industrialized societies  Protestants killed themselves more than Catholics  Single people and divorced people will kill themselves more than married people. (more likely for men)
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