Topic 2- Socialization and Education (Week 2 Lecture + NS chp 12 + SQ chp 4)
the process of learning culture and becoming aware of yourself as you interact with others;
a process of socialization whereby knowledge and cultural know-how is transmitted.
z e.g.1 t Oxana: the feral child in France
Question: -- What makes us human?
-- Are we products of our genes or spirit?
z Sociobiology/ Biological Psychology:
The role of biology, or genes, not only count for physical capacities, also count for specific social
practices and behaviors. ( i.e., potential for crimes)
z Logic of Sociobiology
-- Identify a supposed universal form of human behavior;
-- Make up a story about why this behavior increases survival chances;
-- Assert that behavior in question cannot be changed;
z e.g.2 t Sexual faithfulness
Sociobiologists assert that: Men are less sexually faithful to their partners than women because of
biological differences between sexes.
compete with other species, one has to increase his/her reproduction, thus increasing the
survival chances. Because of the differences between males and feuo[}µ]}vÇuU
males increases their reproduction and survival chances by spreading sperms during sexual
However, statistics do not prove the theory (Slides #2 pg7-8): men committed sexually unfaithful only
exceed women by a small portion; for married couple, men are as faithful as women.
How sociologists look at the case:
1. The reasons men are more sexually unfaithful than women include:
different ways of sexual educations
men and women received;
women have larger opportunity costs on sexual intercourse than men;
2. Impact of socialization institution (e.g. marriage) can be greater than biological impulse (e.g. lust).
z Human behaviors are socially mediated:
Biological impulses (e.g. hunger, thirst, lust) are infant and original, and they can be socially mediated.
e.g.3 Hunger : Hunger Culture Eating
culture: norms: what do we eat/ what do we not eat/ how do we eat/ eating manners..etc
value: why do we eat/ should we eat..etc.
beauty ideals: which is healthier to eat/ nutrition/ gain or lose weight;
others: how do we describe hunger; how do we demonstrate hunger
Thus, eating is a social practice, not directly from hunger (instinct);
z Agent of socialization (major 4):