SOC200H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: System On A Chip

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Published on 18 Sep 2016
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SOC200H1: L101 2016 Lecture one September 13 th
2016
What makes a question sociological?
1) A question revolving around the social world
Popularity
The line is drawn among social psychology
2) A sociological question must be empirical testable—we must gain empirical data
Non-normative questions—sociological question –normative means
based on values of good/bad based on our own judgment—THIS IS NOT
A SOC QUESTION
IS IT GOOD OR BAD—that is not empirically testable
How are families affected due to a certain crime—that is empirically
testable
3) A sociological question must be theoretically-relevant
Findings of something small leading to a larger scale and impacting the
world as a whole
How do you answer a Sociological Question?
1) Deriving an answer is quite easy—but you must find evidence to establish truth
Epistemology and Methodology
Epistemology: the study of Truth and knowing
Methodology: The science behind finding out
Authority
-Someone considered knowledgeable who’s voice/opinion cause an impact on our
perception of the reality
-Halo Effect: something we do in our heads taking the procedural status of one area and
using it to evaluate-conclude fact of another area even if it is not correlated
The positive side of authority is it allows us to benefit from the time
invested by others in learning to teach new outlooks to others
BUT –authority has a down side too
-Authority can be ascribed vaguely in a sloppy matter
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-Authorative figures have the power to make decisions based on personal motives and
objectives thus they can misuse and abuse their power deliberately
-Well-meaning and sincere autoreactive figures can be WRONG
Tradition
-This is how its always been “folk knowledge”
-Common knowledge
-Information is passed through the processes of socialization
Positive vs Negative tradition (slide) compare + contrast
Positive
-Saves time just as authority
-Allows learning from others experiences
BUT
-Inquiries can be limited as people feel they are already aware of all the
information possible
-This could lead to closed mindedness
-Adjudication is not present—leading to contradictions
Experiences + observation
-this is information we have gained through our own observations and senses
-the information we have acquired through personal experiences
-information is not relied to be received by others
The problem with observations
-inaccuracy—we forget
-selective—we don’t focus on everything and prioritize something over another
-mistakes are highly likely
observation to conclusion REQUIRES ANALYSIS—but humans are bad at this to
-overgeneralization
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-illogical reasoning
The Solution
-SCIENCE
oNatural + social scientists are able to analyze and collect data through specialized
techniques—there analyses help support or reject theories
oTheories: the systems of propositions interrelated regarding casual connections in-
between concepts—no implications on whether or not the theoretical thought is
TRUE—(other then soc sciences its just the definition written above)—theory
does not mean evidence is provided in support
oData: carefully acquired information or empirical evidence abiding specific
guidelines (Rules + procedures)—tiny little problem—gathered information =
observed= which humans are not very good at
What distinguishes data from other forms of observation?
Data is designed to be rigorous –which means proper precautions
are placed in a step by step method to avoid mistakes
Observation Error—inaccurate observation
-Data collection is not casual or semi-conscious observation
Data requires a formatted procedure deliberately established for the
purpose of observation and recording that information
oAnalyses—specialized procedures used to derive logical conclusions
Data observation error-inaccurate observation—how do we prevent this?
-Implicit and vague—the common sense understandings of classifying + calculating data
is not efficient for our data collection
-Concepts must be defined explicitly through precise and theoretically informed
frameworks
Data observation error: Selective Observation—how do we prevent this (slide)
-A vague survey without a plan of who you will survey is unacceptable
-Plan for who and when observation must make it possible to support and disprove the
theory
Analysis error: Overgeneralization
-Observing something in multiple instances in one setting does not necessarily mean that
same observation will be present elsewhere
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find more resources at oneclass.com