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SOC364 SEPT 19.docx

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Brent Berry

SOC364 SEPT 19, 2012 Recent history and how inequalitits have improved in mortality and death Also alarming over last generation some positive still have growing inequality in urban Toronto And tying it together health in urban sociology, health has been neglected in urban sociology Social life of small urban spaces based in new York city case studies all in north America Stats can report from 2002 a little dated bc census data only up to 1996 shows changes from 70s to 90s Patterns of mortality - Over 25 year period - 1971 to 1996 dif in life expectancy in quintile so 1 5 top and bottom diminish by 1 year for male and female - 7 percent for infant mortality - Some to health care in Canada and delivery of health care to deliver it to the population - Life expect strarts at 0. 80 life expecatnay 75 5 years of live of years lost - How much is due to inquality across neighborhoods - Sizable potential years of life lost can be attributed to inqueality - Some contradcotry finding - Health have made improvements - Causes see widening and other stability - Sizable variation from nehborhood and income and disparity from 1996 - Canadas healh care does a good job Methodology - Cuase fo death is attributed not exact science and errors are made - Causes of death are moving aregt - Getting kicked by horse was top 10 from infeciuos diseases to chronic diseases and diseases of affluence and new age of epidemics wih hiv and aids - Mortlaut and cuases have changed over time 71 to 96 as well and major change stop smoking - Geographical unity examined - Examine the measures - Geographic units that are important for us - Neigborod different things different people so stuck with them - Use particular unit called a census tract about 1 1000 - Break neighborhood into income and then into quintiles Table - Not anything about death rates growing pop and older pop - Assign people neighborhood where they live given postal code and not known exclude them and could make difference in results Contd - Quintile 1 the richess and 5 the poorest - Richest on not everyone is rich mixing of the wealthiest people may be living in poverty - Concentration of poor people in poor neighborhoods - Recent immigrants in poor neighborhood and unemployed as well - Occupation and eduction differences - Single parent families 3 times in poor Chart 3 - 1970 to 1996 - Infant mortality down in all neighborhoods see a convergence - And there is still a gap between poorest and all the others - Convergence of 4 but not of the poorest - Poor where rich was before Another chart - Women live longer then men - Poorest stand apart - Middle neighborhoods come closer - Must look for statistical analysis not just look Next - Male and females - Black line confidence interval - Pooreet men 50% to age 75 wlathies almost 70 big difference - Similar to women but poor and wealth - Women poorest is higher men wealthiest Chart 9 - Important graph - How important in income mortlatiy in health - Projection based on the wealthy and give to everyone else and compare to actual how much is it, reduce inquality across neighborhoods and lump together and black bar 24% - Reality cant do that of wealthy many other things have to change, work conditions life conditions culture things - 2 greates cause to pyll is income Chart 11 - Group of findings showing progress - Convergence of causes of death 12 - Changes not convergence - Rates have declined overall but inequalities across differecen neighborhoods - See some crossing over in some cases 13 - Females lung cnacer gone up nc more smoking - Infectious disease up a - And mental and diabetes - Go 2006 to present in diabetes so greater convergence - Poorest neighborhoods stand apart - Type 2 diabetes overeight Key messages - Inequality shows neighborhood condition may be important and important intervention points - How much patterns vary acroos neighborhoods Us - See difference in wealthy and poorest but see a gradation Risks and protections - Large differences in health between ppalces - How places influence health - Neighborhood level - But live in many contexts at same time - So think aout all the context - Uni students and influenced by all - Focus on neighborhood - Up and downstream dimensions of place - Neighborhood not broad social structures - Charge different rate for car based on where u park it actuary based on property crime - How neighborhoods influence health and how deconstruct it - The physical environment the built form does it lead to teeritiorial fuicntion do they feel they have control survelled - Social things – institutiosn that promote social interaction - Identity shaped from where we come from - Us to Canada still ways of thinking subtle differences - Make relative comparisons all the time - Not absolute deprivation but relatrive deprivtation bc have enough calories shelther etc the comparison can cuase stress and shape us Torontos three cities - Findings same but update with 2005 datat - Toornto change significantly over last generation - Grown a lot more people from more places - Diversity resources - But also challenges - Globlaiziton and labor market - Much stagnation of wages for a long time - Less college eudcatiion no change in income - Blue city 1 neighborhood breaking down in census tracts increase 20 percent more in indiciudal income - City 2 whit area border of blue neighborhood increase decrease less then 20%, 40
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