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SOC388.MAR22 2012.Sp.doc

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Page 1 SOC388 MARCH 22 2012 Sociology in Everday Life TG. SP. Cerulu Cognitive sociology - Cognition - Culture - Habitus - Institutionalization Mental Categories Prototypes Cognitive asymmetry - Eclipsing o Banishment o Physical seclution o Shunning - Clouding o Impressionism o Shadowing - Recasting o Rhetorical o Prescriptive - Cerulu did a bit different study - The book is about people’s ability when bad things happen to them - A lot of different data, interview, observation, media, library material, collections, reports – people are better prepared for good things than bad things that happen to them - Paintings from heaven are more detailed then ones from hell - We have best things but not worst things, such as best café, best restaurant, etc. - What is your goal? o Lottery winning o Be healthy o Have a fulfilling career - What is the worst thing that can happen to you? o Not having myself or family to be sick o Dying from a sudden cause or accidents Page 2 - When she asked her students what the best thing that can happen to them, they were very specific. They said “win a lottery of million dollars”, “fall in love with this person”. But when they were asked negative things, it was very vague. - People in the US have problems perceiving the worst. = potential blind spot. It happens because of certain social patterns that reinforcing this tendency to focus on best and not look at the worst. - There are 5 different ways when people get discharged o They tend to change directions in a way they are looking at good things and not bad things - Cognitive asymmetry o She looks at brain patterns. o Positive asymmetry - Culture and cognitive asymmetry - We think with concepts. These help us analyze and interpret things around, such as interviews, weddings, etc. that have patterns that we can be prepared for Prototype - Some doggy is more doggy than others? What does mean? That means there is a prototype. - For the Prof it is German Retriever. The closer it gets to Golden retriever it is more likely to be a dog, so they say. o Rosch – What dog will be a prototype difference? o In Mexico it might be Chihuahua. So we all have different prototypes because it comes from observations. - Prototype is kind of an object or idea that resembles a typical case. - The notion of Family Resemblance between Labrador and golden retriever because they are more similar than Chihuahua. But Chihuahua is closer to golden retriever than snake. So that structures our thinking - Our prototypes tend to be on that basic level. The object here would be Golden retriever and broader category would be Dog. o Super ordinate – dog o Basic level – golden retriever o Subordinate – English golden retriever - What research found is that these categories and prototypes we use are on the basic level. So why would that be? o They are close to the perceived world structure  This means: when she sees a chair, she will say “there is a chair”, not “there is a furniture”. Things that she sees in a world. Page 3  Too much detail is not necessary. When you see a dog you say “oh a dog” not “oh, English golden retriever” – cognitive econom - Concepts have critical features o To create concepts in mind we think of these concepts that create features o We need to see difference and these are the distinction rules o Dogs and chair all have 4 legs but those are not their critical features. Chairs stand up, dog’s legs move. o This is how we predict how they will relate to us - Graded membership o Golden retriever and Labrador are closer than Chihuahua.
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