Machine-Press Period.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Lindsey Eckert

SMC228 October 9, 2012 THE MACHINE-PRESS PERIOD Characteristics of the Hand-Press Period -common press was made of wood -everything done by hand -binding was mostly done on a case by case basis 1. hand-made paper 2. books bound in small batches and with animal materials 3. common press 4. composition of type by hand Characteristics of the Machine-Press Period -paper manufacturing -use of metal -composition begins to be something that machines do -binding becomes regular part of the book in the mid-19th century -price of books decrease 1. shift to machine-made paper 2. introduction of edition binding and cloth materials 3. many different presses, including: iron hand-press, platen jobbing press, rotary machines 4. composition of type by machine What social, legal, or technological factors contributed to the shift between the 2 periods? -end of 18th century, rise in education (not just for the rich anymore) - resulted in more demand for educational books -industrial revolution - the capability to make fabric quickly and cheaply affected the binding process -notions of copyright law PAPER -in 1800, 100% of paper was made by hand -by 1900, 99% of paper was made by machine -cost of making paper decreased Laid paper -paper made by hand -rags are cut up -soaked in some kind of chemical, bleached… -put into a paper mould -transferred onto felt Wove paper -paper that does not have distinct wire and chain lines -if made by hand, made from a mould of this wire mesh (very thin) -much smoother than laid paper (why is this important? - makes it easier to print on) James Baskerville -created a specific typeface (very thin, elegant, distinguished lines) -loved his typeface so much that he was unsatisfied with the way laid paper conveyed his type -set up a partnership with James Whatman and invented the process for creating a wire mesh mould that makes wove paper -1757 Virgil - first book that was created using wove paper Machine made paper -smoother and comes in larger sheets -however, much more difficult to date (no more watermarks with dates on them, all the paper looks the same) Early Machine-press Period -shift from ink balls to ink rollers -more specialization of the printing trade -book production -periodical production -jobbing houses -specialization in the trade led to specialization in the machines Iron Hand Presses -modelled on a wooden hand press (common press) -made out of iron, not wood -lasts longer, more durable, doesn't change size because of temperature, cheaper to maintain, doesn't warp Wharfedale Cylinder Machine -as opposed to the flat press that goes over the type (flat platen) -cylinders require less force/effort to use Middleton Perfecting Machine -perfector machines were equipped with two cylinders which printed both sides of a sheet -output of iron hand-press: 150 sheets per ho
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