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St. Michael's College Courses
Lindsey Eckert

SMC228HIF LECTURE NOTES LECTURE 01: ELEMENTS OF MATERIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT CULTURE What Does Materiality Tell Us? - Material features: is your book hard or soft cover? What do you think the pages are like? - Cost: does your book seem expensive? Cheap? - Type: what kind of book might it be? A novel? A textbook? A reference book? Would it have pictures, graphs, or illustrations? - Audience: who might buy or read this book? Adults? Children? Students? What Is Bibliography/What Is Book History? - Bibliography is: “the study of books, including their texts, materials, history, production and distribution; also an account, a list, or description of books or works”—Williams & Abbott 143 The Sociology of Texts - Authors do not just write books; there are series of processes that lead from an author’s ideas to the book in a reader’s hand. These are social, human processes - Books are physical and social objects LECTURE 02: MEDIA TRANSITIONS AND THE RHETORIC OF CRISIS Silent Reading - Conventions of media use—determined by culture, not the media itself Does New Media Make Us Dumb? - The internet has become a primary form of external or transactive memory, where information is stored collectively outside ourselves Media Transitions - Changes between media are slower than we often think - The advent of new media technology does not immediately negate the usefulness or cultural value of a previous technology - Retro is cool Nook Campaign - Simultaneous images of old and new media - New media introduced as participating in older, traditional value systems - Continuity is key - Exemplar of media transitions - Rubrication in incurables - Fake watermarks and chain lines - New media, new values The Sociology of Texts - What does “the sociology of texts” mean? - What questions does McKenzie’s treatment of Treaty of Waitangi encourage us to ask? - Treaty of Waitangi (Feb 6, 1840) - Accelerated version of introduction of printing in Europe (40 years vs. centuries) - Multiple versions of the Treaty was well as the circumstances surrounding its “signing” complicate the document’s authority Timeline - 1815: first efforts to create a written language - 1827-28: requests for printers - 1834: the printer William Colenso arrives in New Zealand - 1834: New Testament in Maori printed - 1840: Treaty signed - 1845: 1 Maori New Testament for every 2 Maori people - 1872: secular texts produced to encourage reading Versions of The Treaty: - Henry William’s Maori translation - Fair copy signed by Maori - 5 English versions sent abroad, all of which differ slightly LECTURE 03: THE PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION: MANUSCRIPT PRODUCTION Papyrus Scroll Books - Earliest surviving roll book dates from the fourth century B.C - Prominent in Egypt and Greek civilization - In decline by third century A.D. WHY? Rise of Christianity which favored codex format Parchment Codices - Made of sheets of parchment folded into leaves - Favored by Christians because the form was distinct from other religious writings Paper Codex - Paper: writing material made from pulped rags, wood, or other fibrous material o Invented in China as early as 1 century A.D th - Imported to Arab world by 8 century - Traveled to Europe via Egypt and Spain by 12 century, though parchment continued to be the favored material long after - Didn’t take hold in Europe as primary material for written and printed book production until the late fifteenth century - 1495 first paper mill in England - Gutenberg printed his bible on parchment and on paper Anatomy of a Codex - Sheet: A rectangular piece of paper [or parchment] used in printing [or manuscript book production] & then folded to create leaves of a book. It is basic unit of a codex not page - The folded sheet creates a gathering of multiple leafs Papyrus Production 1. Harvesting of papyrus reed plant (Egypt) 2. Stalks cut into long, thin strips 3. Strips soaked in water to release the plant’s natural glues 4. Strips laid out in two perpendicular layers 5. Sheets is hammered out to release excess water and create thinner surface 6. Polished with ivory or shell Drawbacks? - Writing on a single side - Not as flexible/foldable as parchment or paper - Less durable than parchment or paper - Cost increased drastically as distance from Egypt increased Parchment - Materials made from the skin of animals o Used specifically to refer to the skin of a sheep or a goat (adult animals) - Vellum: material made from the skin of a calf, kid, lamb (baby animals) o Uterine: finest grade of vellum made from an aborted calf Parchment Production: 1. Skin washed thoroughly 2. Soaked in lime or brine 3. De-haired (hair sided/flesh side) 4. Stretched over a wooden frame to be scraped, first with pumice then chalk 5. Divided and cut into sheets, then folded into gatherings of leafs, each lined or ruled Why Parchment? - You can write on both sides of the leaf - You can reuse it, resulting in palimpsests - It’s easier to fold than papyrus - It is not limited to a single region, like papyrus - It is more durable Manuscript Book Production - 30-60% of the cost of a book went to paying or providing for the scribe - Materials second most expensive part of a book Scribes - A copyist of classical and medieval manuscripts o A scribe can refer to a public official, secular copyist, or one of a monastic order o Religion vs. Secular scribes o Scribal practises indicates a special skill set that differs from “normal” everyday writing Monastic Scribes - By this constitution we order that every monk not otherwise reasonably prevented at the time and place appointed be occupied in the study of reading, in writing, correcting, illuminating, and likewise in binding books - Scribal work would be form of penance - Conditions were uncomfortable o No artificial light, no heat o Silence (though some believe scribes wrote from dictation) - Scribe’s notes often indicate uncomfortable and sometimes forced nature of their work - Steps: 1. A gathering was completed by a scribe 2. A corrector then compared it to the original text for quality control and accuracy 3. Gathering given to a rubricator for decorated initials and details 4. If it was an important or lavish book, it would be given to an illuminator for illumination Illumination - Often associated with monastic scribes, but also used in other texts o Medical books o Literary texts o Philosophical texts Value - Because books were so labor intensive to create they were extremely expensive - In the 14 century, King Edward II paid 80 oxen for a single illuminated book - Books often chained - Book curses used as threats to those that might damage or steal texts. Often written by scribes or owners of books Scribes and the Book Trade - Increased demand for texts around universities shifted manuscript book production into the secular, economic realm - Introduction of pecia: piecemeal production of a single text wherein one person is responsible for producing a number of copies of the same section of a large work How Can Tracking Scribes Be Useful For Scholars? - What was thought to be neat and clear or true was subject to variation or time Gutenberg - Was trained as a blacksmith and a goldsmith - His innovation was moveable type, rather than the printing press itself - Neither Gutenberg nor his printing exploits were financial successes - Individual letter (modeled on gothic script of the period) were cast, one at a time - Gutenberg’s background as a goldsmith was essential for perfecting typecasting - His printed books mirror the format and look of manuscript books - Gutenberg Bible o Also known as the 42 line Bible o Finished in 1454 or 1455 o Copy now held at University of Texas, Austin was purchased for 2.4m US dollars in 1978 o A more recent copy was sold for over 5 million dollars in the 1990s Bibliography and Technology - Proofing introduces errors. The types of errors likely to occur change with different technologies What Are Some Of The Different Types Of Bibliography? - Reference—concerned with primarily with enumerating, describing, and providing access to works as opposed to books (or other documentary forms) In other words, a works cited page - Historical—a wider, broader approach to bibliography associated with the larger question that Book Historians like Robert Darton asks - Analytical o Disinterested examination of books as physical objects o Not interested in book content but physical form reveals about its history of production o Concerned with the process of book production o Geologists of book history - Descriptive o Interested in describing books produced by historical processes o Often these take the form of author bibliographies o Multiple copies examined to provide a history of a particular book and to serve as a standard of evaluation What is The Relationship between Literary Criticism/Critical Studies & Bibliography? - Textual criticism o Relies on bibliography o More about relationships between versions o Questions of textual authority LECTURE 04: THE HAND PRESS PERIOD Characteristics - From around 1500-1800 - Characterized by the use of the common press (wood) - All of the moveable type was set by hand - Handmade paper - Books bound in small batches with animal materials Casting Moveable Type 1. A punch cutter carved an individual letter in reverse, this resulted in a punch 2. The punch was hammered into a softer piece of metal to create a right reading impression of the letter called the matrix 3. The matrix would be filed and fitted into a typecasting instrument made of wood 4. Molten metal poured into instrument, resulting in a reverse reading impression of the matrix The Print Shop –Equipment - 1 or more common presses - Cases of type—really expensive because of time it takes to produce, expensive to ship - Wooden furniture and quoins—wedge the type into place - Chases: a frame in which pages of type are arranged and locked up for printing - Galley trays—holding pen for type - Furniture: a wood spacing material set around a text block to lock it into a chase Type - Expensive - Often smaller print shops would only have a limited supply of one or two different fonts - Large operations would have a wide selection of typefaces and sizes - Trace broken letters—how it was put together (history of it) The People - Compositor: a person who sets the type - Distributor o Distribution o Standing type: a type that stands there, already been printed (used if there is a second edition. A waste of print shop supply, more likely to get damage) o Foul case: a compositor’s case in which some pieces of type have been distributed into the wrong compartments and wait for the opportunity to create a typographical error - Pressmen or Presswomen - Proofreader—it wasn’t until the 1600s that authors were their own proofreaders The Printing Process 1. Copy was cast off, usually by an experienced compositor - Going through a text and deciding where page breaks should occur - Senior compositor - Sheet is the primary unit of the printed book—not the page - Imposition: arrangement of pages in chase to print one forme so that when the sheets are properly folded, the pages run in the correct order - Setting by forms: setting individual pages not consecutively, as they would eventually be read in a book but in the order, they would be printed. WHY? It reduced the amount of standing type - Forme: assemblage, or imposition, of type pages for the printing of one side of a sheet - Outer forme includes 2 pages that will come first & last when sheet is printed & folded correctly (page 1). The inner form is the opposite side (page 2) 2. Lines were set in a composing stick by the compositor - Composition: the process of setting type, spaces, rules, headings - Composing stick: handheld tray in which compositor place type from this case according to copy - Upside down, left to right - YOU MUST SET THE WHITE SPACE! 3. Type transferred from composing stick to galley tray, where a complete page was formed - The compositor would transfer lines from the stick to a galley tray - Throughout much of the hand press period, galley trays were the size of standard pages - Later, galley trays would be larger to accommodate multiple pages at once 4. Imposition (Multiple pages imposed on a flat surface and locked into a chase) - The compositor would then take each of the pages he’s set and then impose them on a flat surface and lock them into a chase with furniture - Related to casting off - Running Titles: are added or when a block or text is slotted into a skeleton forme - Catchwords and signatures are added 5. Chase transferred to the bed of the press 6. Window in the frisket cut according to size 7. Printing! - Sheet placed on tympan - Frisket folded down over tympan to protect white space After Printing - Stop press correction - Drying sheets (offset) - Folding into gatherings LECUTURE 05: THE MACHINE PRESS PERIOD Characteristics - From around 1800-1950 - Characterized by innovations in: o Paper making o Typesetting o Movement from wood to steel - Shift to machine made paper - Introduction of edition binding and cloth materials - Many different presses, including: iron hand press, platen jobbing press, rotary machine - Composition of type by machine What Social, Legal, Or Technological Factors Contributed To The Shift Between The Two Periods? - Rise in education - Industrial Revolution occurred Paper - In 1800, 100% of paper was made by hand - In 1900, 99% of paper was made by machine Laid Paper - Made by hand - Features? Watermark, chain lines (vertical) and wire (horizontal) Paper Mould—Used to create paper Wove Paper - Doesn’t have distinct wire and chain lines - If made by hand, made from a mould of this wire mesh (1757) - Much smoother than laid paper. WHY? You can keep it for a long time Machine Made Paper - Is smoother and comes in larger sheets - Much more difficult to date because of the absence of watermark. Watermarks were used by different paper mills The Early Machine Press Period - Shift from ink balls to ink rollers - More specialization of the printing trade o Book production o Periodical production o Jobbing houses - Specialization in the trade led to specialization in the machines Iron Hand Presses—made of iron, apply more force and more durable Wharfdale Cylinder Machine - The impression is made by a rotating cylinder rather than a flat platen - Require less force to use Middleton Perfecting Machine - Perfector machines equipped with two cylinders which printed both sides of a sheet - Output of iron hand press: 150 sheets per hour - Output of perfector machine: 900 sheets an hour Binding - Hand Press Period o 1780-1820: selling and binding books in paper bards was common - Machine Press Period o Introduction of casing, binding, which simplified the binding process o Introduction of edition binding (silk, cloth (used in the 1820s) and leather) - Binder’s ticket: stamped or printed identification of a book’s binder on a paste down endpaper Typesetting - Early Machine Press Period Presswork o Typesetting by hand o Scale of production increased, but production methods in early 1800s were largely similar to the hand press period - Stereotype Plates o A printing plate cast from a plaster or paper mold of a forme of type o Advantages? Provides solid printing plate made by molding from original form, quick Composition Machines - Cold Metal o Introduced in the mid 19 century o Stored type in magazines o Used a keyboard to release individual pieces of type in the correct order - Hot Metal o Introduced at the end of the 19tcentury o Linotype: typesetting machine introduced in the 1890s (1880s) that cast not individual pieces of type but whole lines called slugs. Operations of its keyboard assembled matrices in which molten metal was cast to make the slug o Monotype: typesetting & casting machine developed in 1890s & consisting of two units  A keyboard unit to code the typesetting by perforating a strip of paper  A casting unit to translate the codes into matrices in which the individual type characters were cast from molten metal o First, the keyboard operator would type the text on his keyboard, which produced a set of holes in paper spool. After its finished, spool would be taken to the caster machine MIDTERM VOCABULARIES Bed: the part of a press on which type is placed for printing Binding: the process or product of folding, gathering, and fastening together the printed sheets of a book and enclosing them in covers Binding Cloth: cloth used in binding. Since the 1820s, publishers began issuing books in prefabricated casings rather than leaving binding to the bookseller or purchaser. Cloth embossed with a variety of patterns, or grains that in descriptive bibliography may be designated diaper, rib, ripple, bead, sand, and beaded line cloth Black Letter Type: a group of angular, scriptlike typefaces represented by textura, rotunda, and bastarda & no longer commonly used, although one bastarda type (fraktur) was used in Germany until mid 1900s. Boards: wood, cardboard, or other material used as stiff covers or to stiffen covers of a binding Book Plate: a slip, often decorated, pasted to an endpaper to show ownership of a book Case: a compartmented tray in which type is kept for composition; a type case. Also, a cover or binding; used especially to refer to bindings made up separately and subsequently affixed to books. Casting Off: estimating space, including number of pages, to be occupied by copy when set into types Catchword: first word of a page, appearing at foot of preceding page as a guide to assembling pages in correct order. Common use in English printed books from mid 16 century until later 18 century Codex: a book (as opposed to a papyrus roll); in particular a manuscript. Codices (pl.) Common Press: wood hand-pressed used throughout hand-press period (1450-1800), consisting of a wood frame in which a screw-driven platen impressed the paper onto an inked forme of type. Composing Stick: a handheld tray into which the compositor places the types from his cases according to his copy. In early printing, length of stick was fixed so a compositor would have to have several of various standard lengths. Later composing sticks had an adjustable end that allowed one stick to serve for setting lines of varying lengths. Distribution: process of removing pieces of type from chase, returning them to type case Edition Binding: the binding up of books before the publisher supplies them to booksellers. The practice became common in the early nineteenth century Format: the design and layout of the book. The scheme by which type pages have been arranged (imposed) within a forme so that when a printed sheet is folded it produces a particular number and sequence of leaves. A designation of book size, since the size depends on the number of times a sheet is folded (and the size of the full sheet) Frisket: a frame covered with parchment or paper in which holes have been cut to expose areas to be printed and to mask the areas of the chase that are not to be printed Gilt or Gilded: having gold leaf applied to its edges; sometimes used to refer to various kinds of stamping on bindings Gathering (signature): book section consisting of folded sheet, folded portion of sheet or quired sheets Illumination: the decoration by hand of a manuscript or book by adding illustrations, initials, and ornaments in gold or silver or in many colors. Incunable/Incunabulum: a book printed from movable type during the infancy of printing before 1501. Plural is incunables or incunabula Inscription: a name and sometimes a note and date written in a book (often on an endpaper or title page) by the author, owner or person giving it as a gift Leading: the spacing between lines of type, created by inserting thin strips of metal (leads) the length of the line or by using type cast on body larger than its face Leaf: piece of paper consisting of one page on its front (recto) & one on its back (verso) Lower case: the typecase placed beneath the upper case in a frame used by compositors. The lower case held noncapital letters (lowercase letters) Manuscript: a handwritten or typewritten document Page: one side of a leaf of a book Paleography: study of handwriting from ancient times to as late as the Renaissance Papyrus: a reed cut into strips that, layered and pressed, from a writing material of the same name as in ancient Greek and Roman rolls Parchment: writing material made from the skin of a sheep or goat. Paper resembling such material in its smoothness, translucence and toughness Platen: on printing press, flat plate that presses paper against inked type. Not all presses have platens Presswork: in book production, the actual printing of the books, excluding the preceding composition and the subsequent binding Recto: the front of a leaf, the right hand page Running Title/Head: the book title, chapter or other division title, or subject heading appearing in the headline (sometimes in the direction line) of a page Scribe: a public official or functionary charged with the writing, copying and keeping of documents, a copyist, especially of classical and medieval manuscripts Scriptorium: a writing room, set aside in monasteries for the copying of manuscripts Stereotype: a printing plate cast from a plaster or paper mold of a forme of type Tympan: in printing, cloth or paper placed between platen of press and paper to be printed. In hand printing, parchment or paper covered frame that presses paper to be printed onto the type by the force of the platen. Also, the frame holding the cloth paper Upper case: typecase placed in superior position (above lower case) in a frame used by compositors. Verso: a left hand page of a book; also, the side of a manuscript leaf to be read second LECTURE 06: TITLE PAGE TRANSCRIPTION Quasi-facsimile Title Page Transcription - Usually brings together (in their original form) information about a work’s author, title, printer, publisher, place and date of publication. Why might it be important? How to do Transcription - The text of the title page should be copied in full, including information about ornaments - Line endings are marked by single vertical strokes: | - There are three fonts that are distinguished: roman, italic, and gothic (i.e. blackletter) - Changes in font size between lines are not indicated - Changes of LARGE and small capitals within lines are - Words printed in color are underlined. If title is printed in more than one color, key in brackets indicating the title’s colors ex: [in black and red] - Rule (lines on the page) or other illustrations should be described in square brackets ex: [rule 6.8 cm] [flower ornament 1.2 cm x 2 cm] LECTURE 07/08: FORMAT, COLLATION STATEMENTS, AND PAGINATION - Deckle Edge: the untrimmed, uneven edge of a sheet of paper as it comes from the mold in papermaking by hand or from the web in papermaking by machine Wove Paper - paper, whether made by hand or machine, bearing not wired and chains lines of laid paper but rather a fine regular pattern of woven or meshed wires, as in most book paper today - Produced starting in 1775 (Baskerville) - By 1805 the majority of paper was wove rather than laid - Shift from laid to wove paper is also a shift from watermarked to unwatermarked paper Fourdrinier - The first successful papermaking machine - 1839 t
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