Lecture 4.doc

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Woodsworth College Courses
William Watson

Sociological Perspectives 1. LiberalPluralism- understanding the way in which the processes develop policies -- can involve diff ways in which diff groups, campaigns are able to have their influence - relationship between gov’t and punishment - a particular tome and context aid a new policy development to occur 2. SociologiesofInequality - earliest ideas came from marxist views - to understand punishment, must understand that it is fundamentally operated by the capitalist economic system -- dominant class controls the systems of productions and operates against the interest of those under the hierarchy - base&superstructure= economic base --- in some general way, the other institutions of society are built on the economic foundation --- work in the way in which they favor the dominant group - punishment is a system of class rule (to control working class criminals) 3 qualifications: - system of punishment, in some basic way, does address some inherent needs (i.e. protection of property); workers do have an interest in the punishment system - possible to make fake concessions -- ruling class can set up things where it appears to be making concessions (i.e. welfare --- but welfare systems are largely funded by those who would need welfare -- not taken from the rich to poor but from the working class to poor) - you have to make real concessions -- the forces fighting the ruling class will be able to extract real concessions -- but no ultimate concessions (i.e. getting rid of capitalism) - the system keeps going on bc it just does ---- they don’t know what they’re doing: social forcesOR(nobody needs to actually need to understand how it works) --- the punishments we have, needs of capitalism and laws we have and how they align -- not saying that the people who are doing this need to know what’s going on - do men have to understand what they’re doing when patriarchy continues? NAH YO - or something is directly and purposely planned to keep the working class down: conspiracy Durkheim:TheoryofPunishment(unlikeMarx) - he is writing at a time where it was really chaotic - huge economic recession - he constructs a theory which is full of peace and harmony --- trying to forget all this chaos and making a beautiful picture - two harmonious states - one at the beginning of history - and one we are moving towards - central contrast between the form of mental and social charact. of primitive and modern societies - the mental and social life is deeply entangled -- our mentalities reflect social order -- a form of solidarity - mechanicalsolidarity(primitive): social division based on gender and age in previous non state societies -- each family unit is identical (same knowledge, skill sets, roles etc) -- norms are very rigid -- everyone follows the same norms -- and they are all identical and uncontested -- and bc of this, it is very tightly bound -- thus when ppl transgress the rules they produce a fundamental sense of threat to the order of life (their view of what is real and true) & they respond in a very punitive fashion -- they sacrifice the offender to turn the norm into a fact (i.e. cant smacking a student in the head --- if he does it and they execute them --- this becomes a fact of life -- in the way that “you cant run through a wall” is a fact, so does ^ thus also become a fact): repressivepunishment which is severe and violent - purpose of punishment: ritual celebration of the moral order - the individual is inconsequential than the social -- it is more real and powerful than the individual -- we need the security of knowing that the social is bigger than we are and the transgressors - we need to understand that punishment changes but we also need to understand that it stays the same - organicsolidarity(modern):there is a division of labor and diff roles (in contrast to mechanic society) an it involves a constant clash of normative orders - increase in moral density --- people question what is or is not moral more often -- recognize that there are diff views and values -- we understand that there are diff norms and facts - our sense of what a norm is changes in that it becomes (in some sense) optional - we develop a new form of solidarity ---- instead of valuing conformity to rigid structures, we have to embrace the fact that we see norms in diff ways -- we see that people are interdependent -- we celebrate interdependence and individuality -- develop the cultof theindividual --- a normative order in which we value individuals as individuals for their own diff, biography etc - IRONY: this new form of solidarity is as collective and social as mechanical solidarity -- we don’t have a choice in whether or not to believe in the the cult of the individual -- it is rammed down our throat by social forces - we are always subjected to this overarching normative framework which we can’t free ourselves from - can’t NOT believe in it -- it is the social world in which we live - the function fo punishment remains the same as in mechanical: its a ritualistic celebration of moral order -- BUT NOT REPRESSIVE IT IS RESTITUTIVE -- looks more like settling up a contract dispute (forms of punishment become diff -- paying fines, community service etc.) - this is the right ritualistic celebration for this contemporary time --- punishment must fit with the interdependent order - must make ppl feel that life is back to order - the dippy hippy fam: when am comes together to face a fight --- he fact of them coming together is the actual ritual -- so this is a celebration of the violation of moral order - ^ these systems work on their own -- no one actually has to know what’s going on -- don’t need to be conscious of it for it to work - the collective is dominant over the individual, we are dependent on the social order - i.e. language only works bc we submit to the fact that we need to use the rules of language which is beyond our control - primitive desire for the social to be superior is reflective of the metaphysical - punishment would be a refined ritual & ppl would experience it in the same exact same way & no one would misunderstand it - 2 Qualifications: - the transition to a harmonious form of social solidarity is a bumpy ride -- does no
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