Anatomy Notes

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesJan 1012 The finer lighter bones of the upper limb are required for complex grasping reaching and lifting The heavier much stronger bones of the lower limb stabilize our weight and are required for powerful movements during walking and running Movements of the limbs Flexion is bringing the arm closer to the body at the elbow and extension is extending the arm out away from the body Supination is when the palms are facing out as in anatomical position and pronation is the opposite Abduction is away from the midline and adduction is towards the midline Lateral rotation is rotation away from the midline as in turning the ankle out to the side and medial rotation is rotation towards the midline Protraction is pushing forward arms straight out pushing against a wall and retraction is pulling back pulling arms back behind you General features of the limbs The upper and lower limbs share a common general outline Both the upper and lower limbs consist of three sections The upper limbhand forearm and arm The lower limbfoot leg and thigh Osteology of the upper limb pectoral girdle scapulaclavicle humerus radius ulna bones of the hand The pectoral girdle The pectoral girdle consists of the scapula posterior and the clavicle anterior The two scapulae do not physically meet on the back not a true girdle Its major functions are to provide attachment for the upper limb to the axial skeleton and to provide great movement flexibility in various planes The pectoral girdle is highly mobile but this causes increased weakness and proneness to injury The scapulae are attached to vertebrae through rhomboid muscles The clavicle Is an S shaped bone with two ends Medially the sternal end attaches to the manubrium of the sternum and the lateral acromial end attaches to the acromion process of the scapula The superior surface of the clavicle is smooth but the inferior surface is ridged and grooved The trapezoid line and conoid tubercle near the acromial end provide attachment for a ligament that runs to the scapulas coracoid process A tuberosity near the sternal end is where the costoclavicular ligament which connects the clavicle to the first rib attaches In addition to an important muscle attachment site the clavicles act as braces by holding the scapulae and arms out laterally from the thorax The clavicles also transmit compression force from the upper limbs to the axial skeleton The clavicle is a relatively weak bone and is prone to fractures When this occurs the bracelike function of the clavicle becomes obvious since the entire shoulder region collapses medially The scapulae They are also called the shoulder blades and are located on the dorsal rib cage between ribs 2 and 7 The scapula is a triangular structure with three anatomical bordersthe superior border short and sharp the medial border parallel to the spinal and vertebral columns and the lateral border thicker The lateral border ends in the glenoid fossa which is the joint cavity that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint The scapula has three important anglesthe lateral angle contains the glenoid fossa the superior angle is where the superior and medial borders meet and the inferior angle is where the medial and lateral borders meet The anterior surface of the scapula is concave The coracoid process projects anteriorly from the lateral part of the superior border and is an attachment point for the biceps muscle Ligaments bind the coracoid process to the clavicle Medial to the coracoid process is the suprascapular notch passageway for the suprascapular nerve and lateral to it is the glenoid cavity On the posterior surface is the spine which is a thick structure that runs across the scapula The spine ends laterally at the acromion which articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle The supraspinous fossa lies superior to the spine and the infraspinous fossa lies inferior to the spine The subscapular fossa is formed by the entire anterior
More Less

Related notes for Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.