Anatomy Notes

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesNov 311 Organization of the nervous system The CNS sends and receives info to and from the PNS The PNS contains the cranial nerves and spinal nerves The PNS is divided into the sensory afferent division and the motor efferent division The motor division is divided into somatic motor and visceral motor or ANS The ANS is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Function of the ANS stability of the bodys internal environment It is the general visceral motor division of the PNS and innervates smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands Maintains optimal visceral functionheart rate blood pressure respiration rate digestion micturition sexual function Divisions of the ANS Sympathetic vs parasympatheticFunctional differences are fightorflight vs restanddigest Anatomical differences are CNS origin length of fibres and fibre branching Biochemical differences are the neurotransmitter released Sympathetic postganglionic axons release norepinephrine these fibres are called adrenergic Parasympathetic postganglionic axons release acetylcholine these fibres are called cholinergic The preganglionic axon terminals of both divisions are always cholinergic release Ach Synaptic components Presynaptic neuroncell body in CNS Postsynaptic neuroncell body in ganglion Ganglioncollection of cell bodies outside CNS Plexusnetwork of convergingdiverging nerves Preganglionic axons are thin lightly myelinated fibres and postganglionic axons are even thinner and are unmyelinated Division differences SympatheticShort preganglionic fibres long postganglionic fibres travel farther distance Synapse far from effector organs Extensive branching of fibres more post than pre ParasympatheticLong preganglionic fibres short postganglionic fibres Synapse close to effector organs Limited branching of fibres more linear Parasympathetic nervous system Conserves body energy housekeeping actitivites Visceral effectsdecrease in heart rate decrease in b
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