Anthropology 1026F/G Lecture Notes - Hamadryas Baboon, Jane Goodall, Stereopsis
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Chpt. 4 – Primate Behaviour
o Primate order
o Primate traits – limbs, locomotion (tree
swingers or knuckle-walkers), teeth, diet,
brain & senses (nose-orientation or techni-
colour stereoscopic vision), social patterns
o Taxonomy its issues with Primates
Read chpt. 5 for this Wed.
o Recall Jane Goodall & fascination with primates (among all primatologists & general human
o Intrigue for humans in watching similarities & differences (between human mannerism & non-
human primate mannerisms; human social groupings & non-human social groupings, etc.)
o From observing other primates, we can guess how much we are shaped by:
o How much can we as humans interact with wild animals?
o How used to humans are the animals becoming?
o Are they being fed?
o How do these alter the behaviour & social patterns of primates?
o Researchers go to great lengths to show submission (using submissive gestures) & disinterest in
conflict to species on study
o Could researchers be anthropomorphizing study group
i.e. assuming group of monkeys are patriarchal & hierarchical like human researchers
Jane Goodall > chimp study
Diane Fossey > killed by poachers
Barbara Smuts > study of friendship in baboons
- Male baboons may become close friends with females (such that female doesn’t sense
Birute Galdikas > orang-utan study
o High # of women in studying primates
o Are males looking for something different than women?
i.e. aggression, dominance, status/hierarchy
do they ignore cooperation, friendship, etc.
Key Attributes of Primate Social Patterns:
1. Group size & composition – basic info on vast diversity of species
- # of male/female/young/adult
- how quickly does it change
- do they live, hunt, eat, forage together or do they split up
- large/small group
> can include:
o dispersed polygyny (one male & multi females) (common in orang-utans & small prosimians)
males may mate with any female in their territory (but not total control)
do males rape females
low-density groupings; little social interaction
o monogamous territorial pairing (gibbons)
females & young more secure shelter & food source
less sexual dimorphism (male/female look about the same)
less work for males in finding mating partner
less guesswork in finding genetic offspring
males more involved iin child-rearing
o female cluster, one male (gorilla)
alpha male tries to control access to ovulating females
adolescent males tolerated until pose a threat
males kicked out form bachelor troops
alpha male may kill off nursing young so the females will stop lactating & become
sexually available again
o multi-male multi-female: (baboons)
typically large groups
males have to learn to get along
requires minimized violent competitive nature
may have a hierarchy (and females look to mate with higher-racked males)
o one-male (and females) units within multi-male (and females) groups (Hamadryas baboons)
one male controls his female mating partners
other males within group respect the given male’s control of female