Anthropology 1027A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Apocope, Sound Change, Language Change
Course CodeANTH 1027A/B
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March 25th 2015
•All living languages are changing
•Change does not mean degeneration or decay
•Areas of language change:
Types of change
•Synchronic: change in different places or in different populations
odescribes language at a given point in time
•Diachronic: change within a language over time
Why do they change?
•variations among speakers get amplified as populations disperse
•creative impulse in humans for distinction and innovation
•influences of populations in contact
models of language relatedness
•Related languages descend from a common “mother” language
oEx. Proto Indo-European > Germanic >English, Frisian, German, Flemish,
•Models representing relations among languages
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Family tree Classification of romance languages
History of language
•3 major periods:
oOld English: 450-1100
oMiddle English: 1100-1500
oModern English: 1500-present
Old English (450-1100)
•Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum,
Listen! We of the Spear-Danes in days of yore
•þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon,
Of those folk-kings the glory have heard,
•hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon.
How those noblemen brave-things did.
•Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum,
Often Scyld, son of Scef, from enemy hosts
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