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Anthropology 1027A/B Lecture Notes - Articulatory Phonetics, Auditory Phonetics, Acoustic Phonetics

Course Code
ANTH 1027A/B
Claire Gurski

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Professor Claire Gurski Marin
SS C 3316 Wed 12-2
Matt Mckarney TA
Kristy Nicholson TA
Course aim:
- intro to lingo theory an analysis
- phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and language change
- Familiarize yourself with current tools of lingo analysis, show understanding
and apply to language data
- main type of evaluation will be problem solving either trough hw
assignments or in class tests
WebCT will have skeleton notes and any other info needed
Print out lecture notes and bring to class to fill in
Textbook: language files 11th ed
- homework assignments (4) 30%
- midterm exam 35%
- final exam 35%
- 4 assignments, print of web, week to do
- 7.5% each
- Submitted at beginning of class
- no lates accepted
- handwritten or typed
- midterm exam will be in class on a Wednesday
- first half phonetics phonology morphology
- final exam xmas period
- cumulative but weighting more on second half
Email policy
- copy ta’s
- will be answer 24hrs during week
reading: 1-1.5 by Wednesday

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What is linguistics?
- Scientific study of language
Language plays an important role in communication, conveying thoughts, emotions
etc. differentiating social groups, defining national identity etc
And can be studied from these perspectives
The perspective we will take in this course is on language as a system regulate by
rules a grammar
What do we know when we know a language?
Linguistic competence what you know
Linguistic performance how you use it
Linguistic knowledge is not conscious knowledge
We may not be aware of the rules of language just like we may not know the ruls
that allow us to stand or catch a ball
Linguistic Grammar:
The mental system which allows us to form and interpret words, sounds, and
sentences is grammar.
- phonetics sound articulation and perception
- phonology sound patterning
- morphology word formation
- syntax sentence formation
- semantics meaning of words
*ngafp *= can not work, English language does not allow
Language is creative
- our ability to speak a language (= our implicit knowledge of the rules
governing language) allows us to form and understand an infinite number of
utterances (sound combos and sentences)
creativeness of language or productivity of language
Five language universals:
1. all languages have grammar
- sound system phonetics and phonology
- words and sentences morphology and syntax
- meaning semantics
- although no two languages are identical they all have rules
2. all grammars are equal
- there is no such thing as a primitive language
- no “good” or “bad” grammar – all tell speakers how to form and interpret
- linguistic analysis must study how language is actually used, not an idealized
version of how it should be used

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3. all grammars are alike in basic ways
- all languages use a small set of contrastive sounds to distinguish words
- all languages have more consonant sounds than vowel sounds
- all languages have an [a] sound
- pronouns refer back to a referent
4. grammars change over time
- addition of new words
- changes in sound systems
- changes in word order
- change does not mean deterioration
- it is said that the only language that doesn’t change is a dead language
5. grammatical knowledge is subconscious
- you cant figure out how language works by thinking about it
- most use what is observable (pronunciation, interpretation of sentences, etc)
to make inferences on the underlying mechanism and to build theories
What Linguistics Don’t do:
- speak many languages language is the study of language in general, not the
knowledge of specific languages
language is an abstract system regulated by rules; linguists are interested
in the system per se
- “a linguist knows how to speak properly”
prescriptive rules
linguistic rules are descriptive: linguists are interested in the language
systems as it is, not in language “As it should be”
we are biologically endowed to create perfect language systems; every
speakers language is “proper”
Linguists want to figure out how languages work, not change them
What linguists do:
- linguistic analysis
- goal: discover the rules governing the properties of language
goal of this course:
- introduce you to the methods of investigating language scientifically
- introduce you to the general facts of the structure of human language
Linguistic analysis
- process used in al aspects of linguistics
- linguists try to describe the patterns and create rules to account for them
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