Anthropology 2229F/G Lecture Notes - C4 Carbon Fixation, C3 Carbon Fixation

9 views2 pages
Published on 18 Jul 2012
School
Western University
Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 2229F/G
Lecture 23 Bone Chemistry
Bone Chemistry: Isotope Analysis: Photosynthetic pathways
o C4 Plants
Higher ratios of C13 C12
Plants that prefer Carbon 13
Tend to be major staples of the diet
Examples
North America:
Maize: more than almost every other plant
Old World:
Millet, sorghum wheat, certain canes
o C3 Plants
Lower C13-C12
C3 plants virtually every other plant
o Called Delta C-13 ratios
In C-4 plants with higher C-13, see on the standard chart, range
from -8 - -14
C3 between -23 - -30
o More you eat, the more it appears in the bone
Reflective of what they were eating in the last 5-10 years of life,
bones constantly being remodeled throughout life
Teeth are different, keep record of what you were eating while
your teeth were being formed
Can tell shift in diet over time when compared (younger when
teeth were formed and older when died)
o How are they used to test subsistence patterns?
E.g. Ohio Hopewell (200 BC AD 200)
Built mounds/earthworks, elaborate trade networks,
etc.
-20 to -24: suggests they are not relying on maize, or it
is a very small part of their diet
o No bias to C-13
Hunter-gatherers?
E.g. Toronto site
Ossuary burial, dates to AD 1300
Looked at teeth and bones
Comparing bones to young and old gave ratios that
showed they were heavily reliant on maize
Teeth of older individuals showed very little evidence
that they were reliant on maize
o During lifespan there was an intensification of
maize use
o Differences within diet in groups?
E.g. Mississippian society
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Lecture 23 bone chemistry: c4 plants. Tend to be major staples of the diet. Millet, sorghum wheat, certain canes: c3 plants. C3 plants virtually every other plant: called delta c-13 ratios. In c-4 plants with higher c-13, see on the standard chart, range from -8 - -14. C3 between -23 - -30: more you eat, the more it appears in the bone. Reflective of what they were eating in the last 5-10 years of life, bones constantly being remodeled throughout life. Teeth are different, keep record of what you were eating while your teeth were being formed. 20 to -24: suggests they are not relying on maize, or it is a very small part of their diet: no bias to c-13. Comparing bones to young and old gave ratios that showed they were heavily reliant on maize. Elite in these societies had differences in diet compared to the general population.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.