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Anthropology 1020E - Biological Anthropology (All notes)

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Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 1020E
Professor
Andrew Walsh
Semester
Winter

Description
1/13/2013 9:34:00 PM Ch 2 What is Anthropology?  the study of humankind, in all times and places Characteristics of Anthropology  Anthropology is global in scope, holistic in vision (ie. it is biocultural) and is scientific in method. Biological Anthropology includes...  paleoanthropology: study of human evolution  osteology, skeletal biology  primatology: study of nonhuman primate behavior, ecology, conservation, and evolution  human biology: study of modern human biological variation and adaptation  molecular anthropology: study of ancient DNA or aDNA  forensic anthropology: an example of applied anthropology Epistemology: the study of knowledge— How do we gain scientific knowledge?  Science, as a self-correcting system of knowledge, assumes:  the universe is real and knowable  the universe operates according to understandable rules, or “laws”  such “laws”, in general, are immutable— ie. they apply across time and space (eg. uniformitarianism)  we can discern, study and understand these “laws” through quantitative observations, hypothesis testing, and data analysis Philosophical “Tools” in Establishing Scientific Knowledge  induction: building from specific cases, recognizing patterns, and finding general rules  deduction: arguing from general principles to make specific predictions  if inductive, general explanations are valid, we should be able to test specific multiple hypothesis deduced from these laws  “Occam’s Razor”: the simplest explanation is probably the best, or most parsimonious, explanation  type I error: accepting a hypothesis that is actually incorrect  type II error: rejecting a hypothesis that is actually correct  Hypotheses that remain unfalsified (ie. not disproven) after repeated testing are theories or laws.  hypotheses cannot be proven Historical Development of Evolutionary Concepts  Plato: develops concept of essentialism: species have always been the way they are today— stable, unchanging… inner quality, “essence”  eg. dogs recognize dogs, horses recognize horses  Archbishop James Ussher: from a detailed study of genealogies of individuals named in the Old Testament of the Bible, calculates that the Earth was created in 4004 BC  Bishop John Lightfoot: late 17th Century, revises date of creation to 9:00 AM, Oct 23rd, 4004 BC  John Ray: late 17th Century, recognizes the concept of reproductive isolation: species are reproductively isolated  eg. horse + donkey = mule, but a mules cannot reproduce  Robert Hooke (1635-1703): recognized fossils as evidence of environmental change and extinction  Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778): the father of taxonomy: system of naming species biologically (genus-species), names humans Homo sapiens and classifies us in the Order Primates  wrote “Systema Naturae”, 10e  Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788): argues that the earth is ancient and that animals must be able to adapt to environmental changes  Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829): introduces the concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics (false— eg. tattoos being passed onto children)  Georges Cuvier (1769-1832): father of paleontology, aims to explain extinctions with the Theory of Catastrophism: extinctions occur due to huge catastrophes, waves of new animals are born  James Hutton (1726-1797): “father of modern geology”; publishes “Theory of the Earth”, which laid foundations of modern scientific geology  Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): outlines “struggle for existence”: demand for resources, in publication “An Essay on the Principle of Population”  Charles Lyell (1797-1875): developed the concept of uniformitarianism: the idea that observable, current daily events can be applied to events in the past, publishes “Principles of Geology”  Alfred Russell Wallace (1858): develops theory of natural selection independent of Darwin Charles Dawin’s Theory of Evolution via Natural Selection  The earth is not static.  Evolution is gradual— the earth is old.  Similar species share descent from common ancestor.  The “driving force” of evolution is natural selection; factors involved include:  variation within populations  struggle for survival (competition for resources and mates)  best variants are naturally selected  missing one here  1859: publishes “On the Origin of Species”— proposes natural selection  1865: Gregor Mendel publishes “Experiments of Plant Hybridization”  missing  points The Modern Synthesis  genetics, population, biology and paleontology were all linked by the concept of natural selection working on inherited variation within populations  biological species concept: actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other species What Do Biological Anthropologists Study and How Do They Study It? 1/13/2013 9:34:00 PM REVIEW  What is Anthropology?  study of humans/humanity  four subfields:  sociocultural anthropology  anthropological linguistics  archaeology  biological (physical) anthropology + “applied” anthropology BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY What do Bioarchaeologists Study?  artifacts: transportable items made/modified by humans  features: large (often unmovable) objects made/modified by humans  bones: animal & human remains  mummies Why Study These Things?  to understand how people lived their lives in the past (reconstruct life histories)  to understand how people interacted with their environment (eg. resources they used)  to understand what things people thought were important in their lives and why they thought so How Do They Study These Things?  3 types of research: descriptive, casual, applied  descriptive: collecting data about the subjects  casual: looking for one thing that causes another thing to happen  applied: determining the means by which one can discover what is being researched Adventures in Biological Anthropology: Case Studies  The Bioarchaeology of Egyptian Mummies  Lady Hudson  acquired by George Bannister  around 2000 years old  “Who Killed the Taung Child?”  australopithecus africanus  first fossil hominin found from Africa  only fossil hominin ever to be recovered at Taung  “keyhole fractures” in skull due to eagles  a large raptor killed the Taung Child  Studying Crowned Lemurs and Ethnoprimatology in Northern Madagascar  sexually dichromatic (differently coloured)  ethnoprimatology: the interfaces between human and nonhuman primate ecology o comparative ecology o predation ecology o synecology o cultural ecology o ethnoecology o conservation ecology  5 families of lemurs: o daubentoniidae o cheirogleidae o lepilemuridae o indriidae o lemuridae  species distribution shifts (to either higher altitudes or latitudes) are predicted in response to climate change  such shifts have already been reported in Madagascar  crowned lemurs present in Matsiborilava since 1984, after cyclone Kamisy o cyclones may pave a path for lemurs to traverse  Primate Conservation— Involving Local Communities  habitat fragmentation and loss of habitat because of deforestation and hunting  two perspectives: i. engagement of local communities and dealing with poverty reduction are essential for the conservation of biodiversity ii. data indicates that community involvement fuels habitat loss and species hunting, not positive outcomes  guidelines: planning, implementing, monitoring/evaluation, funding Wednesday NATURE OF ANTHROPOLOGY  anthropology: the study of humankind, in all times and places Characteristics of Anthropology  global in scope, holistic in vision (ie. it is biocultural) and is scientific in method. Biological Anthropology includes...  paleoanthropology: study of human evolution and non-human primates (physical and behavioural) through excavation; osteology, skeletal biology  primatology: study of nonhuman primate behavior, ecology, conservation, evolution  human biology: study of modern human biological variation and adaptation  molecular anthropology: study of ancient DNA or aDNA  medical anthropology: study of how social, environmental, and biological factors influence health and illness  forensic anthropology: study of human remains to determine age, sex, stature, ancestry, disease, etc.  an example of applied anthropology  determining age: o perinatal: inspect overall bone size and composition— tends to be small and composed of varying proportions of cartilage and bone o neonatal: greater degree of bone ossification (maturation of the bone) o infants & young children: long bones in legs and arms o adolescents: lengthened long bones, ie. femur  measure degree of fusion of the end of a bone to the shaft o adults: difficult to determine age until bones begin to deteriorate due to old age  determining sex: o easier to tell in older skeletons o sexual dimorphism: males tend to have larger bones with larger muscle attachments; pelvic bones are wider in females  determining trauma: o lesions (natural shape altered) = pathogen o bone defects (outer surface altered): deformation of bone = diseases o premortem (before death), perimortem (time of death), postmortem (after death) Epistemology: the study of knowledge How do we gain scientific knowledge?  science, as a self-correcting system of knowledge, assumes: o the universe is real and knowable o the universe operates according to understandable rules, or “laws” o such “laws” apply across time and space (eg. uniformitarianism) o we can discern, study and understand these “laws” through quantitative observations, hypothesis testing, and data analysis Philosophical “Tools” in Establishing Scientific Knowledge  induction: building from specific cases, recognizing patterns, and finding general rules  deduction: arguing from general principles to make specific predictions  if inductive, general explanations are valid, we should be able to test specific multiple hypothesis deduced from these laws  “Occam’s Razor”: the simplest explanation is probably the best, or most parsimonious, explanation  type I error: accepting a hypothesis that is actually incorrect  type II error: rejecting a hypothesis that is actually correct  hypotheses that remain unfalsified after repeated testing are theories or laws; hypotheses cannot be proven Historical Development of Evolutionary Concepts  Plato: develops concept of essentialism: species have always been the way they are today— stable, unchanging… inner quality, “essence” eg. dogs recognize dogs, horses recognize horses  Archbishop James Ussher: calculates that the Earth was created in 4004 BC (via detailed study of genealogies of individuals named in the Old Testament of the Bible)  Bishop John Lightfoot: late 17th Century, revises date of creation to 9:00 AM, Oct 23rd, 4004 BC  John Ray: late 17th Century, recognizes the concept of reproductive isolation: species can only reproduce amongst their own breeds eg. horse + donkey = mule, but a mules cannot reproduce  Robert Hooke (1635-1703): recognized fossils as evidence of environmental change and extinction  Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778): the father of taxonomy: system of naming species biologically (genus-species); names humans Homo sapiens and classifies us in the Order Primates wrote “Systema Naturae”, 10e  Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788): argues that the earth is ancient and that animals must be able to adapt to environmental changes; species change and evolve after they move from the place they were created  Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829): introduces the concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics (false— eg. tattoos being passed onto children)  Georges Cuvier (1769-1832): father of paleontology and comparative anatomy, aims to explain extinctions with the Theory of Catastrophism: extinctions occur due to huge catastrophes, waves of new animals are born  James Hutton (1726-1797): father of modern geology; publishes “Theory of the Earth” which laid foundations of modern scientific geology— uniformitarianism  Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): outlines “struggle for existence” (demand for resources) in publication “An Essay on the Principle of Population”— more individuals born than can possibly survive  Charles Lyell (1797-1875): with Hutton’s ideas, developed the concept of uniformitarianism: observable, current daily events can be applied to events in the past; publishes “Principles of Geology”; contributed to stratigraphy and glaciology; influenced Darwin  Alfred Russell Wallace (1858): develops theory of natural selection independent of Darwin Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution via Natural Selection 1. The earth is not static. 2. Evolution is gradual— the earth is old. 3. Similar species share descent from common ancestor. (Tree of Life) 4. The “driving force” of evolution is natural selection; factors involved include: o variation within populations o struggle for survival (competition for resources and mates) o best variants are naturally selected o best survival traits will be inherited; less successful variants may be eliminated from population  1859: publishes “On the Origin of Species”— proposes natural selection  1865: Gregor Mendel publishes “Experiments of Plant Hybridization”— identifies Mendelian Principles a. Law of Segregation b. Law of Independent Assortment The Modern Synthesis  genetics, population, biology and paleontology all linked by concept of natural selection  Biological Species Concept: actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other species Origin of Species (vid)  nature selects life forms best adapted to reproduce  Darwinism is a non-random process  mutation is the random change in genes which offers the raw material for natural selection, but natural selection is what makes life the way it is How Does Genetics Inform Biological Anthropology? 1/13/2013 9:34:00 PM MICROEVOLUTION The Structure of DNA  DNA: double stranded macromolecule with a coiled, double helix structure (twisted ladder)  long lateral strands composed of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules  short horizontal strands carry genetic information— composed of complementary pairs of nitrogenous bases  four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) thymine (T)  A-T, C-G  allows DNA molecule to replicate itself, both to make new somatic or body cells: mitosis, and in the formation of gametes: meiosis  DNA strand is wrapped around histones (proteins) to form a chromosome  centre of each chromosome contains a centromere— if the centromere does not function properly during mitosis, the daughter cells may not contain the proper number of chromosomes Mitosis  essential for growth, development, and maintenance of somatic cells  DNA in somatic cell nucleus replicates, cell divides, daughter cells reproduced, each genetically identical to parent cell  not factors in evolutionary change of species over time  eukaryotes: cells with a nucleus— can be unicellular or multicellular  contains chromosomes  prokaryotics: cells without a nucleus— unicellular Meoisis  occurs only in production of gametes 1. begins with DNA replication and cell division 2. second cell division not preceded by DNA replication: creates gametes with half the number of chromosomes found in somatic cells— haploid number  diploid number of chromosomes reconstituted when sperm fertilizes egg  genetic changes that affect gamete formation can have important implications in species evolution LAWS OF INHERITENCE: GREGOR MENDEL  1865: reports results of plant breeding experiments that show that inherited traits do not blend— Law of Segregation  1865: identifies dominant and recessive forms of traits— polymorphism  results show that groups of traits not necessarily inherited as a set— Law of Independent Assortment Genetic Polymorphisms  example: human ABO blood group system o 3 alleles (forms of the gene) for blood type: A, B, O  produce four different phenotypes: A, B, O, AB  produce six different genotypes: AA, AO, BB, BO, OO, AB 1. may be either homozygous: two same alleles, or heterozygous: different alleles Heredity— A Brief Summary  gene: a portion of DNA that codes for the production of a particular protein, ie. a long sequence of amino acids  human genome project: discovered 20-24k genes in humans  mutation: random alteration in a gene  genetic mutation is a key source of the variability that underlies evolution via natural selection  can be positive, negative, or neutral  alleles: alternate forms of a gene  homozygous chromosome pair— identical alleles of same gene  heterozygous chromosome pair— different alleles of same gene  genotype: actual genetic composition of an organism  phenotype: physical appearance of an organism  may or may not reflect genotype  dominant alleles: expressed phenotypically in heterozygous condition  recessive alleles: only expressed in the homozygous condition  genome: total number of genes in an individual, or species  gene pool: conceptual representation of the total range of genetic and allelic variation in a population, or species DNA, mRNA, tRNA  m = messenger o transcribed from DNA in nucleus and posted out to ribosomes for translation o codons are complementary to DNA triplets o mRNA: simple strand o broken down after translation  t = transfer o translates mRNA by the ribosomes, making a new polypeptide o anticodons are complentary to mRNA codons and correspond to specific amino acids o tRNA: clover-shaped loop structure o reactivated with a new amino acid after translation  Gene (made of triplets of DNA bases) codes for specific amino acids  DNA in nucleus transcribed to an mRNA strand, using complementary base pairing to convert triplets of DNA to codons of mRNA, moving out to the ribosomes o base U is used instead of T  Ribosomes move along mRNA translating it into a polypeptide o anticodons of tRNA bind to codons on mRNA (complementary base pairing), carrying their specific amino acid  Condensation reaction joins neighboring amino acids, making a polypeptide chain The Relationship Between a Gene and Biological Effect  each gene has a distinct biological effect  seen in Mendelian inheritance  produces discrete or qualitative variation  polygenic trait: many genes contribute to a single effect  produces continuous or quantitative variation  pleiotropy: a gene that has multiple effects, ie. one gene influencing many traits  polygenes and pleiotropic genes operate together  complex pattern of gene-effect relationships  overly simplistic to say 1 gene = 1 trait  conflation: treating two dissimilar things as if they were equivalent FORCES OF EVOLUTION 1. Natural Selection: favors certain genotypes by acting on phenotypes of individuals i. directional selection favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range (either higher or lower) ii. disruptive selection favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range iii. stabilizing selection favors intermediate phenotypes 2. Mutation: the ultimate source of genetic variation o 4 possible causes: copying errors during cell division, exposure to UV or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, viruses i. point mutations: exchange of a single nucleotide for another a. likeliest route to producing evolutionary change over time ii. chromosomal mutations: chromosomes come apart or fuse together iii. genome mutations 3. Gene Flow— two-level effect  increases variation within populations  decreases variation between populations 4. Genetic Drift: has three outcomes— 1) a random decrease in genetic variation, 2) more likely to occur in smaller populations, 3) increased variation between populations, “sampling error”  “Founder Effect”: new subpopulation composed of only a few individuals of the old population, with different allele frequencies than original population o leads to reduced genetic variation o individuals may have a non-random sample of genes of original popultaion  generational genetic drift: some lineages expire over time while others increase  evolutionary bottlenecks: population significantly reduced in size and gene pool structure radically altered Biological Evolution/Natural Selection/Adaptation  recombination and mutation produce genetic variation  natural selection and genetic drift make heritable differences more or less common in a population  biological evolution can occur without natural selection and vice versa  improvements in reproduction and survival do not represent progress MACROEVOLUTION  microevolution: change in a population’s gene pool  macroevolution: not observable  see fossil record  phyletic gradualism (Darwinism): evolution occurs at a constant rate: slow, gradual change  fossil record should reveal transitional forms linking different species within a lineage  con: must find more fossils to fill in gaps  punctuated equilibrium (Eldridge & Gould): spaced out, rapid evolution (stasis)  gaps were real, cannot find anything to fill— during speciation events  eg. founder effect phenomenon, migration Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium model  no evolution will occur in a population, assuming: o population is infinitely large o there is no mutation o there is random mating o no other forces of evolution are operation  provides a tool to start examining how a population might be responding to evolutionary forces Recognizing Species  dozens of criteria for identifying species  Equus— mule, horse, donkey, zebra  52 MYA Eohippus discovered, ancestor of the horse  4 toes to 1  typological definition: individuals are the same species if they can successfully produce fertile offspring  no longer used  biological and phylogenetic species concepts Biological Species Concept:  Ernst Mayr: groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups o applied to extant (living) populations Phylogenetic Species Concept:  smallest set of organisms that share an ancestor and can be distinguished from other such sets  applied to both extant populations and the fossil record  character states analyzed using cladistics: study of evolutionary relationships within and between organisms  assumes there are changes in characteristics (genetic/physical features) within leneages over time  all organisms are descended from a common ancestor  a lineage can only split into two groups Why study primates? How well do we know the primate fossil record?  clarification— adaptation: long term biological change Why study primates? i. Humans are a primate species— studying other primates allows us to understand our species (comparative biological context) ii. Primates are of interest in their own right— the 350+ species of nonhuman primates exhibit a striking range of adaptive strategies (Order Primates is one of the most diverse groups of mammals) iii. Conservation— understanding the behavior and ecology of nonhuman primates provides info necessary to formulate and apply effective conservation efforts (30% all primate species either endangered or critically endangered) 10 Things Learned About Humans Studying Primates  we are 96% similar to monkeys 1. Possible origins of bipedalism 2. Genetics and human biology— building the human genome 3. Insight into group sociality o 150 friends max o dominance hierarchies 4. Possible origins of tool use 5. Stem cell technology 6. Learning and cognition o imitate older individuals, particularly mothers 7. Cultural transmission o different behavior at different sites 8. Possible origins of language 9. Discoveries in medicine, eg. insulin 10. Human nature Primate Traits and Taxonomy  no single trait defines primates  variation in locomotor systems, manual dexterity, brain size:body size  expanded neocortex may be an evolutionary result of: i. complex networks of interactions in social groups ii. theory of mind: understanding mental state of others iii. enabling mutually beneficial cooperation— extractive foraging  a prolonged juvenile life history stage makes all of these possible Taxonomy: What’s the Point?  to accurately represent the phylogeny (evolutionary history) of groups of organisms  leads to comparative morphology, others may be derived from analyses of comparative molecular genetics (ie. DNA-based molecular phylogenies)  all primate species share a number of traits— “Primate Pattern” a. pentadactyly: 5 fingers & toes; grasping abilities b. flattened nails: loss of claws, sensitive tactile pads on tips of fingers and toes c. retention of clavicles: collar bones— reduced or absent in many other mammalian groups d. dentition form generalized (heterodonty— teeth are different shapes): number of teeth reduced, derived condition from ancestral mammalian condition  visual specializations: eyes face forward to give us depth perception via convergence and binocular vision  stereoscopic vision: fibres of optic nerves from each eye transmit visual info to both hemispheres of the visual cortex  olfaction reduced: no moist patch of skin like dogs and cats  relatively high brain to body ratio  “slow” life history: K-selected species— long gestation periods, singleton births, long birth intervals, slow maturation, large amounts of prenatal investment, long life spans  trend towards permanent social groups Basic Primate Taxonomy 4 Primate Biographic Regions o Neotropics o Africa o Madagascar o Asia Madagascar o Lemuriforms o Daubentoniidae: the aye-aye o Cheirogaleidae: mouse and dwarf lemurs o Lepilemuridae: sportive lemurs o elongated hindlimbs for vertical clinging and leaping o Indriidae: indri, safikas, woolly lemurs o elongated hindlimbs for vertical clinging and leaping o Lemuridae: “true” lemurs, ruffled lemurs, gentle or bamboo lemurs Africa and Asia o Lorsiforms o galagids: bushbabies— Africa only o nocturnal and aboreal o eat birds, insects, fruits o lorsids: pottos— Africa, lorises— Asia o have a lethal bite  Tarsiers: found only in SE Asia  faunivores  extremely long legs, rapid leaps New World Monkeys (infraorder Platyrrhini, superfamily Ceboidea)  found in Central and South America  eat fruits, flowers, leaves, insects  3 primate families:  Callitrichids: marmosets and tamarins  Cebids: capuchins; squirrel, owl, titi monkeys, sakis; bearded sakis & uakaris  Atelids: spider, woolly, muriquis & howler monkeys  prehensile-tails: can support entire body weight Old World Anthropoids (infraorder Catarrhini)  all extant Catarrhini are diurnal 1. Superfamily Cercopithecoidea  have bilophodont molars: for chewing leafy plants  Cercopithecine: found in Africa o live in a variety of social groups, from monogamous to mult- male/multi-female  Colobine: found in Africa and Asia o mostly aboreal quadrupeds in tropical
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