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Anthropology 1025F/G
Terry Webb

January 15 The Beginnings of Human Culture 1. To what group of animals do humans belong a. The order of primates b. Closely genetically related to Bonobos c. Make and use tools d. Vocal signals 2. When and how did human culture evolve a. Homo Habilis pretty much beginning (butchering and skinning) b. Use of fire 3. When and how did humans evolve a. 7mya b. Austral. 4 mya c. Homo Habilis d. H erectus 2mya e. H. Habilis 1.5mya f. More and more tools, elaborate, art, exodus from Africa, g. No early ancestor forms in Americas. Only sapiens. 4. a. Only modern human left is homo sapiens sapiens Non-human primates • They are not mini images of humans. They had their own evolution o We shared an ancestor at one point, but both separated and evolved separately • We study how we are the same, and how we differ o What causes these similarities or differences? • We are all part of the APES o “lesser apes” are the gibbon phyla January 15 o Orangutans are most distant primates genetically o Bonobos are 98-99% genetically identical • These apes suffer from the same things we usually do (cold, flu etc) very susceptible to identical diseases and illnesses o Smart animals, many humanlike tendencies • Compare similarities and Differences o Old theory- males aggressive, females nurturing  This simplistic model is false. Proven through many species o Largely men who were going out in early anthro days. o Sexual Dimorphism Males stood out because they’re larger. These were studied more because it was easier to follow them rather than females. Primate Traits • Human dentition is unspecialized o Most primates/ We can eat almost anything, meat, grass, roots  Where as, say a horse has specialized teeth for grass o All share hominid dental formula  2-1-2-3 • Each quarter of mouth has 2 canines, 2 incisors, 3 pre-molars, 1 canine? • All primates share this o Whole primate family started arboreal ( in the trees)  Stronger emphasis on vision than smell  Particularly for binocular vision • To see through branches, from tree to tree o Brain- huge cerebral hemisphere cortex.  Shows intelligence January 15 • VIDEO what is a primate o Primate class-mammalian  Warm blooded, mammary glands, o Large brains in relation to body size,  Density of neurons and speed of nerve impulses  More brain power devoted to vision  Forward facing eyes, 3D • Flattened faces (easier vision) • Much more of brain is devoted to vision than smell o Long gestation period, long developmental period of growth  Slow/long development after birth  To develop our brains over time o Large brain, few instincts  Learn from parents o 5 digits and flattened nails on ends of digits  Old World monkeys have opposable thumbs (gorilla, ape) • New World have semi-opposable thumbs o Bipedal-ism  Upright torso  But mostly knuckle walking.  Only human fully bipedal • Our long arms are abnormally long for our bodies, vestigial features • Older style birth system of humans designed more for quadropedal animals o Mobility and dexterity of hands and upper body January 15 Non-Human Primates • We can use them as analogs of fossils we’ve found in the ground o Bipedalism, hunting behaviours, social organization o Help us reconstruct our ancestors o Helps us define who we are today • Try to simplify complex behaviours without making horribly wrong assumptions Problems with Comparative Methods • Biased selection of examples, • Primates are varied, it’s not hard to find a certain type of behaviour • Biased research o Some animals have different meanings for symbols (smile vs. canine threat) o Over Classification • Kingdom- Animalia o Phylum—chordata  Sub Phylum- Vertibrata • Class- Mammalia o Order- primaties  Family- Hominidae (only humans, chimps, gorillas and orangs. Plus early ancestors ie Australopithecus  Genus- Homo  Species- Sapiens  Subspecies- Sapiens sapiens Evolution January 15 • Progression, efficient adaptation to environment, change over time, specialization of organs • The First Hominids o Ardipithecus (fragmentary remains)  Earliest ancestor, for sure  Hominidae (family)  Diverged from ape-like about 4 mya (million years ago) • 5.8--4.4 million yrs ago • Bipedal, more chimplike than any other hominid • “ground monkey” o Small brain, small stature  Modern female chimp size o Face was more prognathic came out more o Omnivore (based on teeth) o Social o Sahelanthropus Tchadensis  Nearly complete cranium  Huge brow, hugely muscular, have skull crest to hold massive chewing muscles  Unable to determine if bipedal  7million+ yrs old • Part of the chimp-human separation • Common ancestor?? o To determine PONGID we look at derived traits which are new traits appearing because older traits can link to both ape and human ancestors o EG Lucy January 15 General Characteristic of Austrlopithecines • Bipedalism • Sexual (size) [large males] • Braincase capacity o increased • Jaws and teeth o 2-1-2-3 •  Britian was jealous all other countries discovered cool things o Faked the Piltdown man (recent human with orangutan) o Distracted from legitimate “Tong Baby” was real discovery • Homo Habilis o “Handy man” o Meat eater o Tools for processing meat o Start of rapid brain increase 2 halves of brain become specialized, allowing for language, creative skills, and specialization • Homo Erectus o Left Africa, evolved slightly differently, some variation but same species  Homo erectus (Asian)  Homo Ergaster (African)  H. Heidelbergensis (European) o Cultural development  Hand-ax and other tools, specially designs, used everything (flake tools)  Evidence of use of fire (unclear how they got it)  Cooking and tool kits= reduced facial structures January 15  Similar teeth to us • Giveaway hominid is cooking food, no more hard chewing teeth  Hunting began to replace scavenging • Basic group hunting • Necessary communication (unsure how)  Greater reliance on tool development and communication Expansion of Hominids • Lumpers Anthropologists who lump things together • Splitters make different species of everything • Who has as much variation? Archaic Homo sapiens • Multiregional Hypothesis o Local pop’n in easter
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