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Minoan and Mycenaean Civilization and the Development of Complexity in Europe.docx

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Anthropology 2100
Peter Timmins

Feb, 11, 2013 Minoan and Mycenaean Civilization and the Development of Complexity in Europe Turkey: -Schliemann’s Excavations at Hissarlik had initial credibility problems and he organized the first multi-disciplinary team in archaeology in the 1870s that demonstrated that Hissarlik was Troy Göbekli Tepe: -It is an ancient temple in South Eastern Turkey dated to the Late Pre Pottery Neolithic A and B, ca 11,000 -10,000 BP and it consists of 25 acres and seven stone circles -Only stone and bone tools have been found because at the time ceramics hadn't been invented yet and the site was excavated between 1995 and 2005 by Dr. Klaus Schmidt -The circles range from 30 to 100 feet in diameter and are surrounded by rectangular stone walls about six feet high and many of the pillars were carved with animal figure reliefs and this is entirely unexpected at such an early date and the fact it was built by people who were still hunter gatherers Early Towns in Anatolia: Hissarlik (Troy) - 3500-1200BC: -Started as a small fortress and grew into a large fortified town by 2300 BC and it was attacked by the Greeks ca 1250 BC Alacahoyok - 2400-2000 BC: -Has 13 royal burials with ornaments, weapons, and pottery that was found under a Hittite layer with gold, silver, copper and bronze Kanesh - 1900 BC: -They had much trade with Mesopotamia and there was an Assyrian merchant colony outside its walls (a Karum or trading centre) and although Kanesh was independent Assyria controlled trade Mediterranean States – 2000-1000 BC: -Egypt -Mitanni in the upper Euphrates region and ca 1360 BC it was conquered by the Hittites and in 1300 BC it became an Assyrian province The Hittites – 1650-1200 BC: -Hatti was the a state of the Hittites in Anatolia and there were many skilled diplomats and traders and it originated in Kanesh and the capital was at Boghazkoy and they had a feudal system of land ownership -They were at war with Egypt over control of trade but they made a peace treaty with them in 1269 BC -They smelted iron by 1500 BC and gave them an advantage in warfare but they were invaded by foreigners in 1200 BC Trouble in the Mediterranean: -The Hittite collapse was the result of invasion and rebellion and ca 1200 BC maritime trade collapsed -There was raiding by bandits and pirates who were known as the “Sea Peoples” and there was a “dark age” lasting 300 years while a coalition of villages and nomadic groups formed the state of Israel ca 1000 BC Phoenicia - 1100-700 BC: -There were ten cities including Tyre, Sidon and Byblos and they were sailors and traders who moved throughout the Mediterranean and they founded Carthage in N. Africa -They exported a purple dye, extracted from murex (a marine snail) and purple dyed textiles were a mark of royal rank and Tyre in modern Lebanon was the capital -They were conquered by the Assyrians in 700 BC and by Alexander the Great in 332 BC Carthage - 800 – 146 BC: -They controlled western Mediterranean trade and expanded their influence and they built massive harbours and efficient fighting ships and they were perceived as a threat by Rome in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC -Carthage was burned by the Romans in 146 BC and it was rebuilt to became a Roman colony Feb, 11, 2013 The Aegean and Greece: Early Farming on Mainland Greece: -The Sesklo site from 5500 BC has houses with stone foundations and the Franchti Cave was a small farming village by 6000 BC and there were Neolithic house foundations at the Sesklo site in Greece Early Farming on the Aegean Islands: -Was extremely rocky with very thin soils and grapes and olives were better suited than wheat and barley and sheep too were important -Olives, grapes, olive oil and wine were traded and there were middlemen in trade in food, precious metals, obsidian, and ornaments and they made marble bowls and figurines as well as ornaments of metals Minoan Crete - 2000 - 1450 BC: -It was not highly urbanized but it did have towns, villages and villas with leaders that lived in palaces -The major centres were Knossos, Phaestus, and Mallia and they were skilful traders and sailors -The Minoan writing system consists of Linear A which developed into Linear B and it was also used by the Mycenaeans Knossos - 6100 – 1400 BC: -It was first occupied ca 6000 BC and it was a farming village for 4000 years but the first palace was built ca 1900 BC and it consisted of a large central court surrounded by many rooms with private apartments, administrative areas, storage rooms, and baths with a plumbing system (terracotta pipes) and it ended up being a series of palaces after 1900 BC Minoan Decline: -In 1700 BC there was an earthquake that destroyed Knossos but it was re-built to cover 2.4 ha (palace, adjacent mansions, paved roads, etc) -In 1600 BC there was a volcanic eruption on the Island of Santorini (Thera) that caused tidal waves and the fallout of volcanic ash may have destroyed crops and most sites abandoned by 1400 BC Mycenaean Civilization - 1600 - 1150 BC: -It was located on the Argos plain and it took over trade from the Minoans and there were several small autonomous city states (major cities or “palace owns” were Mycenae, Tiryns and Pylos) -There was a complex system of gravel roads, stone bridges, and culverts Mycenae: -Is noted for the spectacular
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