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Anthropology 2100 - lec 2.docx

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Anthropology 2100
Peter Timmins

Anthropology 2100 – lecture 2 TheArch Record: • Created by hand Arch Data: • Spatial distributions become data; everything becomes data Artifacts: Ecofacts: Arch features: AnArchaeological feature: • Left picture: map the extent, make a detailed plan of it, do a profile etc. since we cant bring this carburetor to the lab Archaeological sites: • Any place where human activity is taking place that leaves behind artifacts, ecofacts etc. • Could be a cluster of stones (the pic of france) Site formation: • Behavioural processes: o • Post depos processes: Behave processes:  Process of making a pot for example: acquisition (getting materials to make the pot), manufacture (pulverize it, add things to it etc.), use (use the pot for years depending on well-made the pot is), deposition (thrown away and will enter the archaeological record as it is dumped in a dump site). Post-depositional transformation processes • They are conditions and agents…etc. o Animals can move things around o Insects can burrow into the sound and artifacts (especially if they are wind instruments o Plowing the field; any agriculture movements; can break up the pottery and the stone tools Archaeological preservation • Can last a long time Tollund man, Denmark • Little oxygen led to good preservation! Lindow Man • Good preservation here again The Iceman (5000 BP) • Great preservation again! • He probably died and was covered by the glaciers quickly before animals tore him apart • Found tools, bow and arrows, and axe with him Matrix – can be other types of sediment like sand or silt etc. Sometimes it could be stone in the case of fossils Law ofAssociation – …. Primary and secondary context • Primary: o Transposed: you hit a rock and scrapings fall on to the floor. If you brush it and bring it to another place (a garbage pin for ex.) • Secondary: o plowing is the most common example Research Design • formulation: o a clear plan/objective is set up o what are you trying to address and how will you go about this – formulate it • data acq: o collect and record data (archaeological evidence) • data processing • interpretation • publication: o write up a report or publish an article Formulation • could be narrow or broad questions • determine the type of data you want to collect DataAcquisition: • 2 ways: o Archaeological survey o Archaeological excavation/investigation Pedestrian Archaeological Survey • Can find sites by just walking around and looking for artifacts • When you find one, you start looking more in around that area for other artifacts Giza Archaeological Survey • List covers diff ways of finding sites or doing techniques Thule: • Possible to see things on the surface in the arctic • Houses in the pic
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