Anthropology 2231F/G Lecture Notes - Crow Creek Massacre, Eastern Plains, Bastion

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Published on 13 Jul 2012
School
Western University
Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 2231F/G
Lecture 26 Plains Village Period
1000-1100 AD
Corn, beans and squash very important
o Had to develop very hardy varieties of these plants because of the
climate, only have about 100 frost-free days
o Tobacco and sunflower also used greatly
o One of the latest areas where people adopted maize
o Many of modern commercial crops were first developed by Eastern
Plains groups
Evidence of influence from the Mississippian
o Cultigens coming in from the east
o Pottery very similar
Villages located on bluffs of river valleys
o Gardens and fields located in the valley
o River floods every spring which replenishes the soils
o No fortifications suggests there weren’t any unfriendly relationships
with neighbouring groups
o Little planning in the layout of the villages
Houses
o About 5-10 houses, small houses (2-3 meters across)
Single or extended families
o About 50-60 people living in the villages
o May have been occupied year round
o Semi-subterranean
o Called earth lodges - covered with earth and sod to insulate them
Trends During Plains Village Period
1. Larger settlements
o By 1400, could have as many as 100 houses
o 1000+ people
2. Larger houses
o Multi-family dwellings
o Matrilineages
o 20-25 meters across
o More rectangular in shape
o Semi-subterranean
o Sedentary
3. Fortified Villages
o 1400
Earliest tend to have more circular ditches around them
Also usually had a palisade
May have had a single bastion
o 1500
More square palisade around villages
Bastions all around the palisade
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Document Summary

Evidence of influence from the mississippian: cultigens coming in from the east, pottery very similar. Houses: about 5-10 houses, small houses (2-3 meters across) Single or extended families: about 50-60 people living in the villages, may have been occupied year round, semi-subterranean, called earth lodges - covered with earth and sod to insulate them. Larger settlements: by 1400, could have as many as 100 houses, 1000+ people. Larger houses: multi-family dwellings, matrilineages, 20-25 meters across, more rectangular in shape, semi-subterranean, sedentary. Earliest tend to have more circular ditches around them. May have had a single bastion: 1500. Found a bone bed remains 486 humans. Body dump, many had clearly been murdered. Most extreme example that they were not on friendly terms. More planned communities with others: not placed randomly, placed in groups or lines, often a central plaza, choosing locations that are more easily defended. Movement to floodplains: movement from the bluffs to river valleys.

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