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Biochem Brandl 13

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Western University
Biochemistry 2280A
Eric Ball

Biochem - Lecture 13 - Dec. 6th Oncogenes: • a mutant form of a normal gene whose presence causes cancer • dominant - gain of function • ex. myc, ras, fos, jun, abl (myc, fos and jun are transcription factors) • Figure 20.47 • overactivity mutation (gain of function) • only need to mess up one copy of the gene How Can Oncogenes Be Formed? • Figure 20.48 • Option 1: • single mutation event - creates oncogene • normal pronto-oncogene has mutation in coding sequence • changes DNA, then RNA, then protein • protein is not hyperactive and made in normal amounts • Option 2: • pronto-oncogene is amplified • creates multiple DNAs and RNAs • normal protein greatly overproduced • Option 3: • pronto-oncogene chromosome is rearranged • leads to over expression of gene or fusion to actively transcribed gene produces hyperactive fusion protein Tumor Suppressor: • a gene whose absence cause cancer • recessive - loss of function • ex. p53, Rb (almost all cancers involve p53) • Figure 20.47 • under-activity mutation (loss of function) • have to mess up second copy to cause the problem Functions of Cancer Causing Genes: • most oncogenes and tumor suppressors code for proteins that act in cell division or cellular differentiation • major functions: • growth factors and cellular receptors for growth factors • cells divide even in the absence of growth factor • molecules involved in cell-cell interaction • the cell-cell interact
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