Biochemistry 2280A Lecture Notes - Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Glycogen Synthase, Allosteric Regulation

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Overview of energy metabolism
Glucose-6-phosphate
Pyruvate
Acetyl-CoA
Glycogen
Lactate
Ketone bodies
Fatty acids
Triacylglycerols
NAD+
NADPH
NADH
FADH2
UTP
Pi NADPH
Ribose-5-phosphate
Nucleotides
DNA, RNA
Amino acids Proteins
Cholesterol
Membrane lipids
NADH
ATP Pi
ATP
NADH
ATP
ATP CO2
NADH, FADH2
GTP
O2
H2O
Glucose
ADP + Pi
NAD+, FAD
NADH
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Topic 12
Carbohydrate metabolism
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Topic 12 learning objectives
Identify the different metabolic fates of glucose-6-
phosphate, and how these pathways are related
Explain in general terms how glycogen is
synthesized and degraded
State the net reactions of glycolysis and
gluconeogenesis (including stoichiometries)**
State the metabolic circumstances under which
glycogen synthesis, glycogen degradation,
glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis are favoured,
without memorizing individual regulators
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Document Summary

Dna, rna: glycogen synthesis and breakdown, glycolysis and fermentation, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway. + 2 pi (like atp, utp can be used as an energy source) Neither atp nor amp regulate glycogen phosphorylase in liver. Control by phosphorylation in liver & muscle glycogen synthase. Insulin leads to dephosphorylation in liver & muscle: glucagon leads to phosphorylation in liver, epinephrine leads to phosphorylation in liver & muscle. Glucose + 2 adp + 2 pi + 2 nad+ (other monosaccharides can also feed into the pathway) 2 pyruvate + 2 atp + 2 nadh. Targets for control of flux y g r e n e e e r f s b b. Metabolite(s: steps 1, 3 and 10 are targets for control of flux through glycolysis. Strategy 1: formation of lactate: pyruvate is reduced to lactate while nadh is oxidized to nad, micro-organisms, some eukaryotic cells (e. g. , muscle during intense exercise)

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