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Lesson 4 – Membrane Biology.docx

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Western University
Biology 1002B

Lesson 4Membrane BiologyMeaning ofFatty acid a carboxylic acid with a long carbon tailSaturated Every carbon has the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms 2Membrane fluidity the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membraneHydrogenation the addition of a hydrogen to a fatty acidDesaturase enzymes catalyzing the formation of double bonds in fatty acidsMembrane permeability the quality of a membrane that allows for diffusionSimple diffusion diffusion along a concentration gradient through a membraneFacilitated diffusion diffusion down a concentration gradient through a molecule specific protein poreActive transport transport against a concentration gradient requiring energyATPBinding Cassette ABC transporter transmembrane proteins that utilize ATP hydrolysis to transport substances across the membrane Cystic fibrosis a recessive genetic disease caused by mutation in the CFTR geneCystic Fibrosis Transconductance Regulator CFTR a chloride ion active transporter that functions to keep epithelial linings moistF508 a phenylalanine deletion at position 508 the most common mutation to the CFTR causing cystic fibrosis 70 of all casesChaperone protein detects protein folding stability in the ERER quality control a process in the ER screening proteins for folding stabilityProteosomes a complex of proteases functioning to degrade proteinsProteases enzymes which break down proteins1Role of fatty acids in membrane structureMembranes are made up of lipids but at least 50 of a membrane is made up of proteinsPhospholipids are the main components of the lipid bilayerThey have two hydrophobic fatty acid tails and a hydrophilic phosphate headBecause fatty acids are hydrophobic lipid bilayers form spontaneously Its a lower energy state when the fatty acids can align themselves together away from the aqueous environment of the rest of the cellRelationship of fatty acid saturation levels on membrane fluiditySaturated molecules align very closely and the membrane is less fluid than if you had unsaturated fatty acidsThe more unsaturated the fatty acids the more fluid the membraneRelationship of temperature on membrane fluidity
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