Biology 2217B Lecture Notes - Phytoene Synthase, Golden Rice, Bacillus Thuringiensis

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
Western University
Biology 2217B
Input vs output trait
o Input trait that helpsthe farmer
o Output helps everyone and has benefit for consumer
Input trait bt toxin, insecticide gene put in with the corn
o There is the chance that insect will develop resistance
o Have to plant a refuge crop, plants without toxin so 5% of the crop is
fed on
o This ensures resistance doesn’t develop or as fast
Golden rice vitamin a is placed inside the rice
o People in countries in which rice is main staple lack vit a bc of lack of
whole grain rice contained
o Vitamin A defiecincy night blindness and irreversible blindness
o Bioengineered risce to contain it in the starch
o Seeds lack phytoene synthase and etc; the lacking genes were placed
o Found that golden rice contained carotene but low levels; found that
synthase of corn was more efficient as a phytoene synthase
Molecular farming
Using plants to produce pharmeceuticals
o Biopharmeceuticals are next wave of drugs
o More expensive
o Ecoli can produce simple proteins (no posttranslational modif)
o Yeast can hyper glycosylate
o Mammalian cells CHO cells very expensive to reproduce
Plants recombinant proteins
o Cary wide variety of proteins
o Free from human pathogens
Pfizer acquired rights for protalix taliglcerase for Gauscher disease
o Case study protein requires complex processing
o Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10
o Potential to treat anti-inflammatory disease
o IL10 given orally showed that IL10 reduces IL6 inflamation
o Mice were given the IL 20 with tobacco reduced but not totally
Limitations of transgenic plants need to produce a lot of plants or more
efficient plants
o Recombinant protein production in plants stable transgenic plants
o Transient expression allows speed and flexibility (agrobacterium,
transfer of TDNA into nucleus but no reproduction)
But genome into bacteria, inject bacteria into leaf, agrobacteria
infects and many copies of tDNA in nucleus
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