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1-Developmental Bio.pdf

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 3338A
Professor
Sashko Damjanovski
Semester
Fall

Description
1   2   •  Development  starts  off  with  egg  and  sperm;  fer▯liza▯on  produces  a  2n  nucleus   •  All  different  cell  types  are  expressing  different  proteins  but  have  same  DNA   3   4   •  Dolly  the  sheep  was  the  first  clone  made  from  a  differen▯ated  cell  (adult  mammal   cellà  not  embryonic)   •  Cells  in  embryo  are  easier  to  clone  than  cells  in  an  adult     5   •  Clone  sheep  because  it  had  really  good  wool?     •  Roslin  Ins▯tute  is  an  agricultural  industry   •  We  know  a  lot  about  how  to  control  sheep's  fer▯liza▯on;  rela▯vely  easier  to  get   eggs  and  sperm  from  sheep     •  Cloning  is  be▯er  than  regular  fer▯liza▯on  because  all  cells  will  be  the  same     •  Cloning  of  the  frogs  was  to  understand  differen▯a▯on;  do  all  cells  have  the  same   DNA  and  is  it  usable  by  all  cells   6   •  Very  similar  to  John  Gurdon’s  work  (frog  guy)   •  As  ▯me  progresses,  cells  differen▯ate   •  Take  a  frog  egg,  remove  nucleus.  Then  take  nucleus  out  of  frog  embryo,  and  place   in  egg  without  nucleus.  Nucleus  is  2n.  Egg  will  take  nucleus  and  from  normal  frog.   •  If  take  nuclei  from  different  stages  of  development,  what  happens  to  successful   cloningà  successful  cloning  rate  decreases     •  Cells  differen▯ate  as  they  age,  and  lose  some  of  their  embryonic  characteris▯cs   7   •  Taking  u▯er  cell  (differen▯ated  cellà  adult  post  mito▯c);  take  nucleus  and  add  it   to  egg  whose  nucleus  is  removed.  The  difference  between  this  and  the  frog,  an   electrical  shock  is  needed  to  start  development?   •  Development  may  or  may  not  proceed   •  Only  1/434  embryos  survived   •  With  the  differen▯ated  cell  used,  its  DNA  is  altered.  Need  to  get  DNA  back  to   undifferen▯ated  level  to  be  used  to  clone.  A  sheep  egg  is  unable  to  do  this  on  its   own  (frog  cells  to  an  extent  does  this  on  its  own),  electrical  shock  is  needed.     8   9   •  Once  sexually  mature,  developing  stops   •  Aristotle  believed  that  the  sperm  carried  the  foetus  and  it  grew  into  a  baby  inside   the  mom   10   •  Development  is  usually  the  same  across  the  board   •  Fateà  if  you  leave  things  alone,  what  will  part  of  the  embryo  become   •  If  remove  part  of  embryo  really  early  on,  they  will  not  become  what  their  fate  was.   If  removed  later  on,  will  have  the  informa▯on  and  will  s▯ll  form  their  fate   (SPECIFIEDà  has  the  informa▯on  to  become  what  it’s  fate  is)   •  If  take  part  of  specified  embryo  and  move  it  to  another  part,  they  may  s▯ll  not   form  fate  (NOT  COMMITTED).  If  s▯ll  form  fateà  means  commi▯ed  (can  not   change)   •  When  commi▯ed  forms  structure;  structure  is  said  to  be  differen▯ated     11   •  Fate  maps  show  were  cells  are  derived  from     •  Once  commi▯ed  differen▯ated  into  what  it  needs  to  become   •  As  cells  divide  first  they  are  fated,  specified,  commi▯ed  and  then  differen▯ated   12   13   •  Start  off  with  zygote  (2n  nucleus)   •  As  it  divides  forms  millions  of  cells.  As  they  become  more  specified  and   commi▯ed,  lose  their  stem  cell  abili▯es   •  To▯potent  stem  cell  can  form  anything  in  the  embryo.  Pluripotent  and  mul▯potent   can  from  many  things  but  not  everything/anything   14   •  Stem  cell  divides,  while  one  stays  stem  cell,  other  becomes  commi▯ed   •  Embryos  are  good  source  of  stem  cells  (not  too  many  undifferen▯ated  cells  in   adults)   15   •  Wesimann  knew  that  something  was  present  from  genera▯on  to  genera▯on   •  Weismann  came  up  with  the  germ  plasma  theory;  stuff  inside  the  egg  (germ   plasmid)  that  has  all
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