Biology 1202B Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Neanderthal Genome Project, Deoxyribose, Moa

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Kaden VanHelden
Biology 1202B: Lecture 10 – DNA Structure, Organization, and Replication I
From bioenergetics to genetics
Enzymes are proteins with catalytic activity
Proteins may perform a variety of other functions in the cell as well
Where do proteins come from?
oDNA replication transcription to mRNA translated to protein
Neanderthal Genome
How does the Neanderthal genome compare to modern humans?
oSingle nucleotide polymorphisms
oCatalogued sites where all present day humans have same SNP but differ from
Neanderthal
Differ at 31, 389 SNPs – 87 proteins
The Structure of DNA
Highly stable molecule
Early 1900s scientists thought protein was the molecule of heredity
o20 amino acids vs 4 nucleotides
Protein contains more information per unit
oThey took a lot of convincing that DNA was responsible
Hershey and Chase (1952)
Despite results of Avery and Griffith, not all were convinced
oProtein made more sense
More information can be held Hershey and Chase remove all doubt
Bacteriophage
oProtein coat
oDNA
Results prove DNA is the genetic material
Started race to find structure of DNA
What was known prior to the double helix?
Nucleotide composition
o5-carbon sugar – deoxyribose
oPhosphate group
o1 of 4 nitrogenous bases
Chargaff’s rules:
oNucleotide composition varies between species
o# of purines = # pyrimidines
oA = T, C = G
Polynucleotide chain
oPhosphate backbone (grey)
o5’ end – 3’end
What wasn’t known?
oNumber of polynucleotide chains in DNA molecule
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