January 20, 2014
Introduction to Rome
Rome (509-338 BC)
- The attitudes of the Romans are similar to ours
- Small settlement of huts around the year 509 BC
- In 338 BC, they flourished to a large chunk of land in central Italy
- Rome was far behind Greece culturally
- Their land mass increases by a large amount by the year 1BC.
- Impurio Senofene? “Empire without limit”
- Rome believed that they were destined to give laws to the rest of the world
753-509 BC: Regal Period
509-31 BC: Republic
- Everything was equal during the republic era. They weren’t controlled by anyone
- Similar to the idea of a commonwealth
- No king or higher power
31 BC- AD 476 Empire/Imperial
- Deceptive term, Rome was always an empire
- Historians say that starting here, Rome had an emperor. They had a commander as
opposed to everyone being equal
- In contrast to Greece, Rome is a great place to build a colony, due to the great amount
of Natural Resources. It has mountains, and low lands. The low lands are good to grow
grain. It’s difficult to soak the soil dry, because of the surrounding volcanoes that spew
- The Apennines goes all through the centre of Italy, and even down to Sicily and runs
under the ocean all the way to Africa where it re-emerges.
- Greeks and Italians did not have any conflict because it was difficult to sail across the
- Most civilization lived to the left of the Apennine mountain range
- The Alps cut off Italy from most other civilizations.
- Romans are very important during the Regal period. There are 3 groups of people who
were important during the regal period. The Greeks were one of them, who sent out
people to colonize the era. The Greek cities in the south were very influential. Another was the Phoenicians. They didn’t live in Italy, but they dominated trade. They did a lot of
commerce with Italians, and they ruled the sea.
The Etruscans: (700-480)
- League of 12 regions
- Etruria and Rome
- Their language was lost because they were absorbed by Rome
- Not much is known about them
- It is clear that they were very influential to Rome’s culture. They looked to the Etruscans
to form a civilization. This is strange because they were viewed as barbaric. It is believed
that Etruscans looked up to the Greeks
- Etruscans were not an empire. They were a federation of 12 cities, which each governed
a specific section. Eventually Rome was one of these cities. However, the federation
- Etruscans were literate, contrasting the illiteracy of the Romans
- Hepatoscopy: examination of the liver. The Etruscans believed they could interpret the
future by examining any discolouration or lumps in the liver of an animal (usually a bull)
- Etruscan language wasn’t similar to any other language.
Orientalizing Period (7 -6 C.)
- Romans looked up to the architecture and art of the Etruscans, which was inspired by
- Their buildings were very similar to the Greek style of architecture
- They call this the Orientalising Period because they look to the Orient, which means any
culture to the east.
- The Phoenicians would bring Greek luxury items (such as art) and trade for raw
materials. In turn, the Phoenicians would sell the raw materials and make a large profit.
- Sarcophagi were inserted into a bay
- Art on the tombs appeared to be symposium. It is unclear whether or not they knew what
a symposium was, or they were just purchasing the pictures and imitating them because
it was prestigious?
- Most Greek pots that are found in museum were not actually found in Greece, but rather
Etruscans might’ve influenced what art was produced, which bends what we know about
Greeks Etruscan sarcophagi depicted harmony between men and women, which contrasted the belief
of the Greeks. Greeks thought women should not be present for anything political but it is
depicted that they were similar in stature in Etruscan art.
Villanovans (c. 1000-720)
o Villanovans burned their dead and buried them in urns.
- Rome, c. 900
- The houses of this society were made of mud and wood.
- Rome emerges from the society. They were a shadow of the Etruscans
Romulus and Remus; Aeneas
Numitor – Amulius
Rhea silvia = Mars
_ | _
Romulus and Remus get cast away down a river, they were expected to drown. They go on to
build a city, and they invite everyone to come. Criminals and slaves included. Only men came,
so women were abducted to live in Rome. The women who were abducted fell in love with their
captors. Aeneas was someone who fled from Troy to build a second Troy. Romulus and Remus
are the grandchi