-tuto, celeriter, iucunde
• Tuto - safely, celeriter - speedy and icunde - pleasant
• You should not use harsh remedies but you could use surgical interventions like
cutting only in very obstinate cases.
• Also prescribe to the Hippocratic principle of help and do not harm
• Basic principle of treatment of all Methodists as well and they also prescribe to Hip-
pocratics of help and not harm.
Soranus of Ephesos
1st C. AD
• Alexandria is still an important medical school. You could learn medicine by looking
at a human skeleton which was the only place you could do this.
• After this education, Soranus went to Rome which wanted physicians. He made gy-
naecology means that which concerns women
• Dissection was not performed in Alexandria anymore. We still have a human skele-
ton; could look at the human skeleton. You still have the tradition of anatomy,
could learn anatomy in with the help of this skeleton.
• Rome was now an important cultural centre in need of physicians and a place for
physicians to be.
• Gynaecology means that which concerns women.
• Methodists are very methodical. It is divided into two main sections.
4th C. A.D.
• It is divided into two main sections, mainly acute and chronic diseases.
• Acute - with fever and acute without fever. Within each of these subdivisions there
is a further subdivision. They are divided into status stricture, etc…
• An acute disease with fever will be something that is called cardiac disease which
is a general weakness of the mouth of the stomach
• Acute diseases without fever which are characterized by stricture would be things
• Acute disease without fever that are characterized by looseness are things that
• These are further separated into stratus stricture (pneumonia) and stratus laxus
(cardiac disease, diarrhea, cholera)
• The chronic diseases are not further subdivided but arranged into capite ad calcem
• This is the basic arrangement of this textbook. If we look at the individual diseases
and how they are discussed we can find a description of the disease.
• Systematic description of diseases.
• The symptoms that are constant throughout the disease through the whole body
are characterized by a stricture or a looseness.
• The next section is treatment according to the Methodist school. The Methodists
are quite learned.
• This is basically the main idea about this textbook. Treatment is always done ac-
cording to the corpuscle theory if they are too dense or too loose. Treatment is
dictated by the general state • One should use relaxing measures. What kind of bedding should he use? Charac-
terized by a stricture, they should lie in a warm room with a warm blanket.
• Vivisection only if pain is present.
• Diseases that are characterized by laxus, the person will be a in relaxed state. If
there is too much fluid coming out of him, then the room should be cool, shady
• You might use bandages to bind his limbs as well.
• This is the main treatment of these diseases.
• Translation of the textbook by Soranus of acute and chronic diseases. In chronic
disease the physician can really show his skill.
Page 103 Fig
• Meant for male physicians and midwifes. They don't just help birthing but look at af-
ter the child's health and might treat infant diseases. It is directed to laymen.
• This is a tombstone of a midwife. We see a woman giving birth or a birthing stool.
Frequent position to give birth in antiquity. The midwife is sitting on a lower stool
in front of a pregnant mother. In this case, she is reaching into her vagina to find
out about the position of the fetus. If the fetus has to be turned or is in the proper
• Midwifery is a very old profession. We know in the fifth c. B.C., goes further back. It
is under the influence of certain gods.
• Eileithya - responsible for giving birth
• Athenus, Hera - also had to do with giving birth, were goddesses.
• These books have to be directed to women who are quite well educated if it is di-
rected to women at all.
• The whole book is divided into sections of twos. The first part are things that con-
cern the midwife and the second part is things that midwife is faced with.
• The first part of the midwife is subdivided into two sections.
• Soranus calls things that are against nature: both sections are subdivided into two
sections: theory and hygiene and midwifery.
• Which midwife are already midwifes and could serve as a model for midwifes.
• Another section is divided into two sections; soranus calls "against nature" or
pathology and one part that is normal nature
• Physiology is divided into theory and the other section is hygiene and midwifery
• The things that are pathological are subdivided into different types of treatment.
The second section is treatment by drugs and surgery.
• We can look at the required characteristics of the midwife.
• Has to be intelligent and has to understand what the patients tell her and what is
going on around her.
• She has to love work and learning is a long process. She has to persevere. She