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The evolutionary history of camels essay the essay assignment. I got an 85. Use it as a guide :)


Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
EARTHSCI 1083F/G
Professor
Cameron Tsujita

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The Evolutionary History of Camels
Komal Deep Kaur Moondi
250576217
Earth Sciences
1083F

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Introduction:
This essay talks about The Evolutionary History of Camels. Camels are very interesting
mammals that have lived on Earth since the Eocene Epoch, which is part of the Tertiary Period
in the Cenozoic Era, about 40 million years ago. This essay will concentrate on all of the six
major kinds of camels in the camel-family, also known as, Camelidae. The essay will enlighten
the reader about the evolutionary origin of camels, specifying when and where camels evolved. It
will also talk about Diversification and Biogeographic Distribution of Camels, which will
concentrate on the diversity of the camels. Furthermore, it will allow the reader to understand the
characteristics that were adapted by camels in order to survive along with their struggle for
existence in the past and present.
The Evolutionary Origin of Camels:
Scientists believe that camels are a group of herbivorous animals that originate from the family
of Camelidae. Camelidae is a camel-like family that consists of six camel-like animals,
consisting of, Bactrian, Dromedaries, Llama, Alpaca, Guanaco, and Vicuna. Out of these six
animals, the Bactrian and Dromedaries are believed to be true ancestral camels. The Bactrian
camels, also known as, the Camelus Bactrianus, are camels consisting of two humps that are
currently found in Central and East Asia. The Dromedaries camels, also known as, the Camelus
Dromedarius, are camels with only hump that are currently found in the dry desert areas of West
Asia along with the Arabian Peninsula, where they first originated. Many scientists believe that
the Dromedary camels might have originated from the Bactrian camels. The difference in the
number of humps within these two types of camels can however be explained due to a result of
domestication. All of the members of Camelidae are similar in structure, each consisting of a
three-section stomach; however strongly vary in sizes and shapes. Scientists believe that the

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ancestors of camels came into existence during the Eocene Epoch, which is the part of the
Tertiary Period in the Cenozoic Era, about 40 million years ago. The ancestors of the Llamas and
the Camels migrated during the Pleistocene period, which led to the camels migrating to Asia,
whereas the Llamas migrated to South America. Living in these different environments with
different Oxygen levels, consisted of these two groups establishing differences in shapes and
sizes, regardless of originating from the same ancestors. Once in Asia, the camels migrated
through Eastern Europe, Middle East, and North Africa, which saw the extinction of all of the
wild camels. The oldest ancestor for all camels is considered to be the Camelops, which are an
extinct type of camels. The camelops vanished in North America, at the end of the Pleistocene
Era about 10,000 years ago, along with many horses, camelids, and mostodons, during the time
which was known as the North-American die off. The camelops differ with modern Bactrian
camels in terms of height as the Camelops were slightly taller than the Bactrian camels. Also,
due to soft tissues not being recorded or retrievable from the fossil record, it is hard to say if
camelops contained a hump or lacked it.
Diversification and Biogeographic Distribution of Camels:
There are two different kinds of camels, the Dromedary, that consist of having one hump and the
Bactrian Camels, which consist of having two humps on their backs (Figure 2, 3). The rest of the
Camelidae family only consists of four more different kinds of animals that contain the same
characteristics as camels however differ in shapes and sizes. These animals consist of the
Llamas, Alpaca, Guanaco, and Vicuna (Figures 1, 5, 6, 4).
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