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Class Notes for Earth Sciences at Western University

Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Gneiss, Kerogen, Uraninite
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 20 Mineral and Energy Resources Metallic Mineral Deposits: Ore if mined for profit Nonmetallic are industrial minerals Magmatic: oHeavy crystals like chromite and magnetite can settle in coolin...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Longshore Drift
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 19 Shorelines Waves: From wind blowing over the ocean A surface waveform of energy moves through the water whose molecules move side to side and up and down As a wave approaches the shore it fe...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Desert Pavement, Barchan
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 18 Deserts and Winds Deserts are dry places where there is low precipitation and little vegetation Geologic Processes: In spite of lack of water and vegetation, processes still occur such as We...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture 17: Glaciers and Groundwater
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 17 Glaciers and Groundwater Glaciers: Form by compaction, recrystallization of snow that eventually turns into ice Types include: oIce sheets: are radialspreading large ice masses on continents...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Stalagmite, Stalactite
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 16 Ground Water Distribution of Underground Water: Takes a long time to get water underground and is most effective by steady rainfall soaking into the ground because heavy rain produces mostly...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Point Bar, Bed Load
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 15 Running Water Hydrological Cycle: 97 of Earths water is stored in the oceans, evaporated then precipitated on land Some soaks in (infiltration) Some flows over the land as streams (runoff) S...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Permafrost, Regolith
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 14 Mass Wasting Controls and Triggers: Gravity oIs the most important, but water is also critical oGravity is always pulling rock, regolith, and soil down slopes. Its more effective if: oWhen w...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Mantle Plume, Continental Crust, Continental Margin
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 13 Mountain Building and Continental Frameworks Isostasy: Masses of continental crust will sit on top of mantle, and they adjust with their weight Continents rise above due to isostasy oBuoyant...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Deep Sea, Lithosphere, Mantle Plume
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 12 Plate Tectonics Continental Drift and Paleomagnetism: Magnetic studies of seafloor following WWII Paleomagnetism: magnetic minerals in basalt point to the existing magnetic pole at the time ...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Continental Shelf, Continental Crust, Continental Margin
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 11 The Ocean Floor Introduction: Mapping the ocean floor is done by comparing multibeam sonar and satellite images Continental Margins: Passive continental margins: not associated with plate bo...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture 10: Earthquakes
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 10 Earthquakes Cause: Mainly by elasticrebound of the crust as stress builds up Rocks bend, then eventually rupture at the hypocenter and energy radiates in all directions Then the cycle starts...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Asthenosphere, Azimuth, Monocline
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 9 Crustal Deformation Introduction: How do rocks get the form by various pressures that the earth exerts on them? Rocks can be deformed to produce structures that can yield energy and ore reser...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture 8: Geologic Time
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 8 Geologic Time Introduction: Radio metric dating: numeric dates, puts a number on a rock (how old it is) Relative dating: how it started, comparing one rock to another Relative Time: Superposi...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Metamorphic Rock, Geothermal Gradient, Parent Rock
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 7 Metamorphic Rocks Morph: to change Controlling factors involved in metamorphism: Parent rock: controls composition Heat: most important, drives chemical reactions and recrystallization of hos...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock
Earth Sciences 1022A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Potash, Dolostone, Chert
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Earth Sciences 1022A Lecture 6 Sedimentary Rocks Introduction: How sediment gets deposited by various agents and turns into sedimentary rocks They are important because they form 75 of rocks that we see on continents Sedim...

Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock

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