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Department
English
Course
English 1022E
Professor
David Bentley
Semester
Fall

Description
ENGLISH 1022 September 10, 2013 • Narrative is a better term to use than plot o It implies the way that the story is told o It has a climax o Protagonist/ conscious mind is better word to use than characters o Setting • What Makes Anecdotes different? o Punch lines-comes at the very end of the story o Lead ins “so this blonde…” is a signifier of what kind of story it is going to be (ie. Once upon a time is a lead in for fairytales) o Includes characters that are stereotypes (newfies, blondes) o No intense description of characters/setting  to be affective jokes have to be SHORT NOVEL ^ NOVELLA ^ SHORT STORY ^ SKETCH ^ ANECDOTE • As we get higher on the list… o characters become more round/ complex as the reader gets to know them o Settings become more complex as well (either a geographical location or an imaginary world) o Climactic moment becomes more complex o Use of an EPIPHANY: moment of revolution for the character AND reader • The modern short story: defined in 1842 by Edgar Allan Poe o Time is a factor o To be a short story, a piece of writing must be short enough to read in one sitting o Has a certain unique and single effect o everything is chosen by the writer for purpose o Rise of short story came with the rise of industrialism o Life style of industrialism was extremely divided-long hours, terrible pay and little time off o In turn, short stories was to cater to their needs, giving readers maximum payback of emotional intensity in ½ hour breaks o Horror and detective stories were maximum engaging th • 2 great movements in the 19 century: o Realism: desire to capture/ relay new modern world/ sense of everyday life o Symbolism: there must be more to life than appearance-seeks to find the mystery of life • Short Stories can be compared to lace: made up fabric and holes and a combination of what is there and what isn’t. (also is made of delicate factor) Thursday, September 12, 2013 • Lives split in two: private vs. public • Modernity: a quality of life which arose in the industrial revolution o People were constantly subjected to large crowds, pollution people were constantly subjected to large crowds, pollution o Consequence: more and more people began to suffer from degrees of anxiety, alienation, unstable identity o Karl marx; all that is solid melts into air, but things that people counted on for years disappeared in the face of modern urban industrial life o Americanitis: ______ o Extastentialism: the meaningless of existence, alienation of humans o “Before this strange disease of modern life, with it’s sick hurry, it’s divided aims” “for strong the infection of our mental strife” (The Scholar Gypsy, Mathew Arnold, pg 2170) • Therapeutic Culture: scape to cottages, parks and books designed as “medicine to the mind” o both psychological and physical; drained, exhausted o particularly people working in cities and offices o what would this culture do? If you were wealthy you built a cottage to escape the city (muskoka-how it originated) if you weren’t wealthy… invention of the great urban park of new york, montreal which were left wild, meant to be therapeutic o Pattern of going out (to a place of relaxation, rejuvenation, “recharge your batteries”) and back (to reality) o Recreated  RECREATION The Horse Dealers Daughter • Published 1916 o Beginning of first world war (people being faced with modernity) o First published as “The Miracle” o Parables of redemption o T.H Lawrence not a Christian o Laying of hands (biblical reference) sparks “new life” o About conversion towards love rather than towards love o Parable of human love (the redemptive salvation) o Love must be sexual as well as spiritual; must be of body, mind and spirit o Culture and society or denying physical feelings due to morals o Lawrence says feelings should overcome our rationally-this can be dangerous o Sense of confrontation with death and acceptance of mortality before rebirth can occur when she visits her mother’s grave- before you can be saved you have to confront your mortality and align yourself with death (which is what she does) o Another pattern- fairytale, especially Cinderella, sleeping beauty • Analysis 1. “In the afternoon” (p.2693) o Mabel must enter into a life curing relationship o Doctor is healer  has ability to turn Mabel into a “brand new bitch” o House is called “Old Meadow” and she returns once cured o She is treated like a brute  emotionally exploited o Joe (eldest brother) is 33  age of Christ at death 2. From “In the afternoon” to “He laid her” (p. 2695) 3. From “He laid her” to END Tutorial Points • The sight of Ferguson’s tension  doctor to lover (undressing of Mabel) • Ferguson as frog (croaking)  prince Tuesday, September 17, 2013 Patterns: 1. Religious  Christianity 2. Faery Tale  Cinderella • Doctor is unlikely prince • He’s wearing purple scarf  regal colour (princely potential) • Both need to confront something in themselves to become whole  need to be awaken • “What are you going to do”…Ferguson is deeply interested in Mabel • Joe: calls dog “B****” calls Mabel “Bitch” • First encounter  sight transfiguration o Feminists argue: women are able to sense men watching them o Ferguson lifts cap  acknowledges Mabel as a woman (respect) • Second  superficial touch o Felt around and felt clothing, NOT BODY o Water is origin of life and fertility o “rose again into the air” echoing Christian concepts o Repeated pattern of fire/ water (sexuality/ spirituality) o “She looked up at him with flaring, humble eyes” o Ferguson in amaze  revolted but unable to turn away o “Flame seemed to burn hand that touched her soft shoulder” o Beautiful, shining of her face • Third  intimate touch o His “heart burning” at her “hot tears” o “He fell to kissing her, not knowing what he was doing” o “He bent forward and kissed her on the mouth, gently with one kiss that is an eternal pledge” o A kiss on the mouth is dynamite in 1916 o Ferguson has “crossed over the gulf” o New clothes  Mabel wants new clothes for the new self o Dr. discovers his watch has stopped  new life (intimate life) o Ready to become Whole Living People (bodily, mentally, spiritually) “And [Jesus] was transfigured before them. And his raiment became shining exceeding white as snow” – Mark 9. 2-3 RECAP:  Story is response to industrial culture  therapeutic  Miraculous healing power of love  whole human beings READING AGAINST THE GRAIN:  “What are you going to do with your life Mabel”  her story  Shift to Doctor  his development into a lover  Age old theme  coming of age of a privileged man (theme of Western culture)  Mabel is a vehicle for the stories real interest  the doctor  MASCULINIST o Doctor standing, Mabel curled at his knees o Doctor fully clothed, Mabel naked o Power, vulnerability o Mabel’s focused as inferior and domesticated (tends to Dr.’s needs) o “Wide strained doubtful eyes” “My hair smells so horrible” “I’m so awful” o Response: “Don’t be silly” o Answers “blindly”  Horse Dealer’s Daughter  The Doctor’s Wife o Possession, no identity o Used only to as tool to describe the Dr.’s struggle “The artist usually sets out – or used to – to point out a moral…. The tale, however, points the other sat, as a rule. Two…opposing morals: the artist and the tales. Never trust the artist. The function of the critic is to save the tale from the artist…” – D.H. Lawrence Thursday, September 17, 2013 James Joyce: The Dead • Dubliner’s published 1914 • Ireland culturally dependent on Britain • Decadence in the Catholic church • Ireland in a state of paralysis  couldn’t recognize/ confront problems • Short stories: “chapter in the moral history of my country” • At the heart of Dubliners, we confront a metaphor  notion of the dead itself o Irish are living ghosts (culturally, spiritually etc.) “Every night as I gaze up at the window, I said softly to myself the word paralysis. It had always sounded strangely in my ears, like the word gnomon in the EU did and the word simony in the Catechism” Epiphany: • From Greek word meaning ‘revelation’ • Christian calendar  January 6 (wise men meet baby Jesus) • Comes to character in text o Should also effect the reader Paralysis: • Inability to take control of personal/ public lives • Embodied in color’s yellow and brown • “A limitation of one’s physical gifts” Phrenology (Lombroso): • Internal characteristics are shown through facial features o Gabriel has high brow  intelligent o Gilt glasses  superficial covering o Restless eyes  sensitivity, not completely comfortable o Hair  like that of Oscar Wilde (Irishman living in England)’ Simony: • Corruption of church by materialism Gnomon: • Parallelogram with a piece taken out • Incomplete geometrical form suggest the reader has to work to complete the shape WEST EAST Lily Gabriel Gretta Misses Morken Miss Ivors Other guests Bartell D’Arcy • People of east are effected by all things English • Gabriel’s living is outside Ireland  West Britain (works in Britain, travels to EU for vacation) • Gabriel’s sensitivity must develop towards empathy…. • East wind  illness, West wind  fertility • Joyce is criticizing the Irish’s incomplete inability to think act Tuesday, September 17, 2013 1. MUSICAL INTERLUDE • Waltz – European, not Irish jigs • Panorama of Irish society: Irish types talking/ interacting • Aunt Julia and Kate are spinsters: they lack creativity o Grey, lifeless, ghostly o Flaccid  erect, nut color (sexual subtext)  Neither male nor female; sexual grey • This party has been going on in a mechanical way  traditional • Their culture is irrelevant to young Ireland • Three Graces  vitality, appeal of youth (destiny’s child, single ladies) • Judgment of Paris  first “beauty pageant” o Pallas (wisdom) o Juno (power) o Venus (beauty) • Gabriel’s reference to ^ prove how European he is • Freddy Malins: stereotypical Irish drunk o Dubious sexuality (high key laugh) o Looks like a sleepy, dozy child o “Nearing the climax of his story” o “Mechanically”  machine like • Mr. Browne  added “e” to Brown (very English) o Embodies paralysis of Ireland o Polite to a degree of annoyance o Dangerous in relation of young women  Takes 3 girls into back room o British presence  source of problem o Fur coat and animal hat • 3 moments that shatter Gab’s stability o D’Arcy rejects stereotype  refuses drink BUT then sings Irish song o Lilly rejects female stereotype (school girl, ready to wed) o Miss Ivors calls Gab a West Britain 2. DINNER • Goose is brown (color of paralysis) o Wild goose  someone who has left Ireland for overseas • Ham (bad actor) 3. RIDE to HOTEL • Night is piercing o Illusion to crucifixion o Painful journey  one state of life to another • Gabriel’s dancing like a horse going around a statue of William (who took Ireland from Britain)  Gab’s life circling around British presence • D’Arcy’s singing of Irish ballad o Awakens Greta’s sadness (memory of Michael Fury) Gab’s epiphany • 12 goodnights o 12 disciples at last super o Indication of painful journey ahead • O’Donnell Bridge  made great attempts to make Ireland part of Britain o See horse as they cross bridge (covered in snow; white) o 4 horsemen of biblical apocalypse  pale horse meaning death 4. GAB and GRET • Greta is full of memories of Michael Fury o More alive in the mind of Greta than Gab is o “While he had been full of memories of their secret life together, full of tenderness and joy and desire, she had been comparing him in her mind to another” (2661-2) • Sets Gab off balance o Sees himself as ludicrous  ridiculous, laughable figure o Feelings reach his mind  redness in face • First stage of epiphany 5. GAB • Moving away from his horrible sense of selfishness o No longer center of universe • “Gabriel leaning on his elbow” (1663)  classic thinker • Curious eyes • “He did not like to say even to himself that her face was no longer beautiful but he knew it was no longer the face for which Michael Fury had braved death” (1663) • “He had never felt like that himself towards any woman but he knew that such a feeling must be love” (1663) LAST PARAGRAPH: • Looking away from Dublin to the west • Looking to Irish politics, history • “Yes” aligns us with life • Reference to living and dead  judgment day is near TUTORIAL POINTS: • Michael/ Gabriel as biblical characters (end of time vs. beginning of Christ story) • Free indirect discourse: shifting registers in third person narrative (changing tone) • Story loses voice of stable narrator  creates interesting dynamic Thursday, September 17, 2013 BRAVE NEW WORLD • Response to the political social economic happenings in that area  financial crisis o Wall street crash of 1929 • Totalitarianism being felt as global force in Europe o Huge regimes aiming to control citizens and global community o Nazism in Germany, Fascism in Italy, Communism in Russia etc.… HUXLEY: thought American culture was vulgar and shallow • Argued that the time had come to reject democracy • Perspective  stability was the ultimate need of civilization o Impose reason, order, stability HETEROCOSM (other world) • World that is not here/ now SCIENCE FICTION • Builds fantasy world from scientific discoveries o Helicopter  still experimental in 1931 o Cloning  not in existence till 1950 o Test-tube babies  not until 1978 o Birth control  not until 1960s o Sex hormone treatment  experimented with in 1930s • ALL present in Huxley’s world o Used recognizable ideas and extrapolates them to see where they’ll go • Extension of scientific ideas that were already in existence o Had to be believable for audience UTOPIA • Incredible, impractical, ideal  ambiguous • OU = not a place/ impossible • EU = good place • World that is better, but also flawed • How much is stability is good? • How much will we miss freedom? • Golden Age: nostalgic for something that never existed • Brave: wonderful, admirable, exciting (Shakespeare’s words) Ideal World Hellish World Comic Movement Tragic Movement Readers// US LIMIT OF DESIRE LIMIT OF REPUGNANCE Chapter 1: • Opens with description of concrete  modernism, ugly • “Only” 34 story building • Hatchery • Verbs are absent  adverbs are absent o Affectively brings the text to a stand still o Past and future are irrelevant o The things you have and your body are what’s important o Eternal stable present DISTOPIA • Presents a world opposite to an ideal world • Utopia with flaw at center o Shortcoming at core o Absence of freedom (IN BNW)  Can’t make meaning of choices • What would it be to lose the capacity to create? To be created? MATRIX (Womb): Loss of interest in freedom *******What is happiness, and where does it come from???? Tuesday, September 17, 2013 CLASS DISCUSION POINTS: • Everyone wants to be a child, nobody knows how to wait and work for anything o Postponing pleasure can increase pleasure • Romance of family unit is disregarded and viewed as disgusting • BNW: not a natural world • Everyone belongs to everyone else o No personal emotions (SOMA to fix unhappiness)  stability o Emotions = instability o Eliminates sexual violence o Woman seem in control of their sexuality • Sexism still apparent in society • Social norms are reversed in Brave New World • No finger prints  no one is an individual, everyone is a twin o Symbolic of how there is no identity o Also limited last names • In 1958: Brave New World Revisited o Conceited that George Orwell’s 1984 a more accurate depiction of the future o BUT: correct about widespread use of tranquilizers, consumerism  SOMA; psychosomatic  Pneumatic; girl who is very well rounded • INVEST IN STORAGE LOCKERS  everyone has too much stuff • Is it true happiness or piggish happiness • Novel is a satire  satire within BNW is impossible • To know what you should be doing is NOT what you want to be doing? (Bernard) • How do you know happiness if you don’t know unhappiness o How can you miss what you have never experienced? • Communal happiness comes at a great cost  what is worth giving up? • For someone to be happy is can’t just be contributing to everyone else’s happiness  where is the self? Find a great religion that balances personal fulfillment and social commitment…. • Living a present life (CONSUMERISM) o Have you got a car?  Do you have a car? • Caste system: Don’t get out of line In a world of fantasy and science fiction, it’s critical we gain entry into that world quickly and that we are immediately inducted into this universe. Opening paragraph pushes us into BNW. He has the readers become a part of the lecture scientist is giving to the students. Within 4-5 paragraphs we understand the science and it’s purpose; huge example of author’s masterful style. Second paragraph described as artist studio but in actuality a hatchery; turns creativity and creation on its head. Ford: Uniformity makes for cheap goods and effective consumerism. History is rubbish! Thursday, October 3, 2013 Eisenstein: 1+1=3 (montage) SPLIC “Musicalization of fiction” CLIP 2 Mustafa: world controller, alpha, few people aware of history of BNW Lenina / Fanny: share the last name “Crown” (same batch betas), recipients of recreational sex Henry Ford / Director: talking about women  comparable to meat, valued for pneumatic qualities and physical features Ford advocated consumer spending • Buy the car and SPEND the difference “Ending is better than mending” • No real purpose beyond the next purchase Page 41: reduced length of passages (picks up the pace) • Provides a panoramic view Effects of conditioning  repetition CHAPTER 4: Lenina: Rounded character, craves to some extent a monogamous relationship (4 months with Henry), at the end of the day she loves the clothes, her beauty etc. Bernard: expert in manipulation = understands it, craves solitude and monogamy, he does what he does because he knows he has to  a part of him that rejects this FINAL STAGE of narration (chapter 7, reservation)  introduction of Linda and John • Shift in perspective and setting (attracts interest) • Contrast in culture • Invited reader to create comparisons Reservation: world of disease, sexual frustration, ugly people Huxley argued: “all religions lead to the same place” (if not…then they should) • The sacrifice of everything in the name of communal solidarity is destructive to individuality • Example of individuality o JOHN (self centered): “But I don’t want comfort. I want God, I was poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom, I want goodness. I want sin” (211) o MUSTAFA’s response: “you’re claiming the right to be unhappy… to grow old and ugly and impotent; the right to have syphilis and cancer; the right to have too little to eat; the right to be lousy…” (212) • Didn’t end novel here because… CONCLUSION: • At the beginning of the final chapter: savage vomits 3 times  purge himself from orgy of sex and drugs • He’s trying to become himself again • Tries to escape  impossible because the Brave New World is everywhere • NO TRUE NORTH: No away of establishing moral direction  just turning etc. • Savage ends in a world of repetition, no road to spirituality All novels studies share a deep interest in problem of the early 20 century o All see it as diseased, and offer a therapeutic response Thursday, October 10, 2013 GEORGE ORWELL: Politics and the English Language • Written between Animal Farm and 1984 o Abuse of power and manipulation o After WWII • “In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defense of the indefensible...” o Pacification • He views language as corrupted, infected, diseased o Used not for truth telling or accurate communication o Used for public relations • “The great enemy of clear language is insincerity.” • The personal is political, all issues are political issues o To know something is untrue, but to do it none the less • Language deteriorates as a result of dictatorship o Words are contaminated by events (Nazi Germany) • “I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable” o Orwell casts himself as a doctor o Epidemiologist of propaganda age  Observe symptoms and make sense of them  Come to diagnosis  Prescribe therapy or cure MAGISTERIAL STYLE • Educated, formal, elevated • He’s usually teacher techniques o Lists, subheadings, italics • Danger: audience feels talked down to • Contrasted by mixing with… COLLOQUIAL STYLE • Political, personal (simple, direct) • Establishes a collectivity • Inclusive pronoun • Encourages us to feel a part of the collectivity EXORDIUM 1. Make audience well disposed 2. Make the audience attentive 3. Make the audience receptive • He best English is English that is simple and clear • That leads and believes it is true • That is ready available and understandable by as many as possible o Not elite, obscure o Tied to honestly and reality • “It is easier -- even quicker, once you have the habit -- to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think…” • Avoid clichés “prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated henhouse.” Tuesday, October 15, 2013 IRONY AND SATIRE Stucturalists v Summer Winter Comic Movement Tragic Movement ROMANCE TRAGEDY LIMIT OF DESIRE Spring Fall Audience Reader LOOK UP LOOK DOWN LIMIT OF REPUGNANCE 1. Gambattista Vico: • Father of social thinking • All civilizations go through three distinct stages o Age of Gods o Age of Heroes o Age of Men (age of individual) • All civilizations and cultures collapse and return to primitive “religiousness” o Sense of cycle/ ending o 9/11 as an ending 2. Northup Frye: • Age of Gods & Heroes  HIGH MIMETIC • Age of Men  LOW MIMETIC How do we act and react to those above/below us? INCONGRUITY: we laugh at things that are out of place to us RELIEF: we laugh out of relief for things we are anxious about SUPERIORITY: we laugh when we find ourselves in a position above those inferior to us SOCIAL: we laugh as a bonding mechanism (as a means of distancing those outside) • Those who don’t adhere to the same value system HOWEVER, humor depends on: timing, who said it, how they said it, the audience… Irony • Looking down o Greater knowledge, wisdom, intelligence, experience • Children cannot be ironic (except for by mistake) • Saying one thing, but meaning another • “A mode of speech in which the meaning is contrary to the word” –Samuel Johnston • More aggressive…. MORE WITTY o Moving into satire • String together naughty, harsh words… • Move from gentle innuendo  heavy duty attack satire Horachian: Roman gentle satirist, made gentle fun of people Juvenalian: dirty, direct satire Two things are necessary for satire (militant irony in it’s attack mode) 1. Target of attack 2. Standard/ norm/ set of values from which you attack that target RIGHT REASON: reason informed and guided by moral and spiritual values • Unless this is true, reason can become crazy (war…) Thursday, October 17, 2013 • A satirist cannot attack weaknesses without norms or standards to judge them • Deep standard Swift adheres to is the right reason (human capacity for rational thought guided by moral and spiritual values) • Right reason has the ability to become abstract and selfish (not moral and spiritual) • Hate speakers sound rational (HITLER) • Language must be guided and informed by reason or else it becomes corrupted o Becomes tool of evil PROPOSER PROJECTOR PERSONA - England as the eater of Ireland - Take the idea of consumption seriously - Babies  milk fed veal (Honey Boo-Boo) 2 Targets of Satire: • Conversion of Reason • Language being destroyed in Ireland 1. EXORDIUM: to “I shall now…humbly purpose…” • Makes readers receptive to ideas • Dehumanizes women to “female sex” • World Vision technique  feed on vulnerable • Seems profoundly sensitive to the issue 2. PROPOSITION: from “I shall now...” to “A very worthy person…” 3. DIGRESION: from “A very worthy…” to “I have too long digressed…” • Define limits of proposal • Eating only of children less than 1 years old • His projects are blurred 4. CONFIRMATION: from “I have too long…” to “I can think of no…” • Husbands won’t beat wives 5. REFUTATION: from “I can think of no…” to “But as to myself…” • Rejection of counter arguments 6. CONCLUSION: from “But as to myself...” to the END USED THE DEVICE of: shock, repulsion  wants Irish to solve their problems - I am speaking without ulterior motive - No benefit from proposition - Rationality of the crazy - All the right words  wrong meaning (twisted and perverted) - Agricultural language - Measurements are obscure o “I have reckoned upon a medium that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in a solar year, if tolerably nursed, increaseth to 28 pounds” o “Maturely weighed the several schemes of other projectors” - Metaphor of consumption o “A young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout.” o “Infant's flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in March” - Uses scientific ideas o Pull sunlight from cucumbers… IRONY: “A volatile combination of ‘meaning it,’ not meaning it, and not not meaning it” Monday, October 21, 2013 Tutorial: Backdrop Addresses Cowboy - Margaret Atwood - Cowboy representative of “American ideal” - Lyric (emotional, songlike, personal pronoun, free verse, importance of word choice) - How was the poem made o Poem as machine  each part has a purpose - “You are as innocent as a bathtub” o Halts reader  forces them to reread - Repetition of “you, your…” - Always look for pairs when reading poems Tuesday, October 21, 2013 Characteristics of romance • Simplified: good or evil, beautiful or witchlike • Exotic Settings: distant—past or future (anywhere but the here and now) • Social Classes • Plots consist of a series of incidents that have a climatic build up to a happy ending o Beginning, middle, end that connect • Narrative: plot is a series of episodes and events • Quest: journey that is physical with spiritual moral component o Treasure, freedom, rebirth o Divided into 3 parts  Perilous journey: series of small adventures  A crucial struggle  Exaltation of the hero • Escapism o Distance in time, place, class o Escape from everyday boring world o Escape to something more exciting (towards limit of desire) • A rigid code of conduct o CHIVALRIC CODE  Christianity: life has meaning and purpose  Courtesy: gentlemanly manners, how you ought to behave o Characters judges on whether they obey or deviate code of conduct • Willingness to suspend disbelief Long Poetry: - Verse paragraph - Alliterative verse o Each line has 4 heavy stresses, at least three of which alliterate o Each line should have a pause in it proceeded by one alliterative force o Contain any number of additional unstressed syllables o No rhyme o Makes poetry easy to memorize  easy to recite - Bob and wheel o “Don't you wish your girlfriend was hot like me, don't you wish your girlfriend was a broad like me…” o Capture key moments o “It’s Christmas time in Camelot...”  15 days of feasting and drinking  Chivalrous, courteous, Christian  Sin of gluttony - Caesura (pause) King Arthur • Boyish • Restless • Accused of being stupid 7 DEADLY SINS 1. Pride: overconfidence in self excellence 2. Covetousness 3. Lust 4. Envy 5. Gluttony: overeating 6. Anger 7. Sloth Thursday, October 24, 2013 SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT • Green is the colour of living vegetation o Represents a life force among a dead world o Ready to be reborn o Stands for energy, vitality and the natural world • Green is also associated with death o Corpses are green • Green is associated with supernatural • Doesn’t wear armor  no intention to fight • Carries a piece of holly  indication of peaceful purposes ALLEGORY = 1 meaning SYMBOL = many meanings Also: EMPLEM = 1 meaning • Carries an axe; blade which is “super sharp?” o AXE  Pagan; SWORD  Christian  Threat to chivalry code o Confront with faith and fortitude  Double-threat • Enters by immediately insulting the court o Doesn't recognize King Arthur o Bunch of cowardly phonies  Inflated reputation • Court responds without fear and with courtesy o Ancient law of hospitality o “Use always the least amount of force”  Appropriate use of violence (fish knife) • Green Knight compares knights of the round table to girls and children o “The green knight laughed so hard that their leader sought red…” • The Green Knight towers over King Arthur o “Tallest in the house” • Sir Gawain responds to knight… o With composure o Humbly o Courteously  “Should you call me courteous to rise from my seat and stand by your side…”  “I am the weakest of your warriors…Such a foolish affair is unfitting for a king” • Contract between Sir Gawain and the Green Knight o Green Knight insists SG gives his name o “If you fail to keep your word, you will be called a coward forever”  Oral contract • Green Knights castle far north o Dangerous; devil’s home; Vikings; cold • Inside of SG shield  portrait of Virgin Mary • Pentangle (knights of round table) o When one part is broken, everything falls a part o Will the pentangle hold???? • If SG sleeps with host’s wife he will commit a ‘double sin’ o Lust and adultery o Delicate dance  protect Christian values and values of hospitality Monday, October 28, 2013 Tutorial: Journey to the Interior • Thought process • Movement o Outside environment  o Domestic environment  o Mind. • Interweaving between internal and external spaces • “Lucent mushrooms” o Psychedelic drug culture o ‘She’s tripping on shrooms’ • Controlled acid = controlled insanity??? o Schizophrenics After the Agony in the Guest Bathroom • Teaches reader about themselves o Reader bias • Atwood gives multiple possibilities o None are right or wrong Tuesday, October 29, 2013 SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT Types of Temptation (St. Augustine) • Tentative Probation o Test someone’s sill and ability to resist temptation • Tentative Seduction o Temptation that results in consent to do something bad (commission of deadly sin of lust)  breaking the 7 commandment and chivalric code • Lady is going to tempt Sir G, he has to avoid falling into sin, courteously without giving offense to the lady o Praises lady (manners) and down praises own ability (humility)  Flattery  modesty • Gawain is proving himself up to the test as being a worthy knight; courteously • The deer is an allegorical representation of weariness; nervousness o Have to outwit the deer o Hunter’s encircle and trap deer o Sir Gawain’s weariness and caution against Lady is comparable • Boar = power and strength • Red fox is an allegorical representation of covetousness (desiring and holding onto something that is not needed) o A thief o She comes into his room in a flowing robe, head uncovered, heavily gemmed, nothing on her face, neck naked, shoulder’s bare, comes into his quarters and closes the door  Huge temptation o Break Christian values or values of courtesy o She turns to offer him wealth  Ring of gold o Girdle isn’t underwear? • SG lies to the host o Doesn’t give up girdle CARITAS (charity, love, love of God) CUPIDITAS (love of material things, wealth) Sources of Temptation: 1. The World 2. The Flesh 3. The Devil Code expects us to be perfect  tells us something about ourselves Tuesday, November 5, 2013 THE LAST DUTCHESS - Published in 1842 -> 5 years after queen victoria came to the throne - Writers should produce works that are appropriate for the whole family, not about sex or anything like that - “Victorian era” Robert Browning ­ Themes of sexuality and violence without being obvious about it ­ Adheres to demands of Victorian culture but still explore the dark side of the mind ­ Poem set in renaissance Italy (time of Michelangelo/ Machiavelli) ­ Poem written in rhyming couplets AA/BB + iambic pentameter ­ The rhyme scheme associates it with order ­ We don’t usually talk in iambic pentameter, so he uses a lot of caesura, and makes the lines continue on the the next ­ Remarks on the realism of the painting of her on the wall ­ He is the only one with the power to view the painting behind the curtain ­ The look on her face makes him angry “Nay, we’ll go together down, sir.” ­ Emphasizes the word together by putting it in-between one syllable words ­ The word lap means the person is sexually jealous ­ The duchess is his wife so she shouldn’t be happy by anything but him ­ The way she smiles at other people makes her promiscuous ­ Blushing implies innocence as well as knowledge -> tricky female response ­ The speaker is sexually jealous ­ Only after the dowry of the new duchess ­ His jealousy grew when she smiled at other guys ­ So he killed her or sent her away = possible murderer ­ Threat to the next duchess ­ What is right about this poem? -> Victorian guidelines o He is an aristocrat / mastery of his realm o His appreciation for beauty and art o Poem about ego and power o His Machiavellian ability -> being able to control other people  Exercises power ­ Victorian writers were asked to be respectable as well as talking about dark things such as murder and jealousy ­ Demanded people to live this divided life -> came together at the end of 19 century thanks to these works: o Freud (id / ego / superego) o Jekyll and Hyde o Dracula Dramatic monologue o Single speaker who is not the poet -> the aristocrat o Listener other than the reader -> a man (?) o Occasion or event -> setting up for the next duchess o Interplay between speaker and listener -> lines 12/13 speaker asks a question o Tension between admiration or sympathy and repulsion Blake – Songs of Innocence o “The sick rose” o Used childish rhymes to portray serious issues o Iambic pentameter o “the marriage curse” Thursday, November 7, 2013 Lyric ­ Associated with the word liar ­ Rhythmical, set to music ­ Oldest literary poem there is besides the ballad ­ Creates a single mood Sonnets ­ 14 lines in iambic pentameter ­ Associated with weddings / funerals ­ Comes from Italian (sonneto = small sound / statement) ­ Emerged at the time of the renaissance in full force in Italy o Phallocentric o Eurocentric – objectifying European women o Mutability o Eternize o Elegiac o Copernican revolution – it was recognized that the earth orbits around the sun, knocked out the notion that humans were not the center of everything, refocused the attention on human beings taking control of their own lives, time of exploring the human mind / reason, humanism emerged -> particular philosophy based on reason (power of reason) Petrarchan sonnet: o Octave (8) Abbaabba o Sestet (6) cdccdc or cdcdcd o Rarely goes beyond 4 rhymes o This form offers the poet an opportunity to compare and contrast two things, or to expand the idea in a new direction o It allowed the poet to develop a simile / metaphor / analogy over several lines o Subject: usually love, lover usually compares the beloved (mostly male speaker) to an object in the natural world, and compares himself as well o The beloved can be likened to a garden with beautiful flowers in it o Can be compared to a season, or the stars and space o Female is usually distant and hard to reach o Masculinist orientation, uses women subjectively (Eurocentric) about European women o The male suffers from not being able to get with the women –> extremes of hope and despair -> the unattainable women and enamored man o Male compares himself to things such as a solider / gardener / ship at sea o Clichés: we still refer to people as stars today / in pop music Shakespearean Sonnet: o Quatrain 1 (abab) o Quatrain 2 (cdcd) o Quatrain 3 (efef) o Rhyming couplet (gg) o One stage of argument in each quatrain o Theories of how this form was created: o Nationalistic -> the English mind is more logical than the Italian mind, English love step by step arguments o English as a language is much leaner on the rhymes (everything in Italian rhymes) -> English writers were forced to change the rhyme scheme o Poetry has the capacity to make people immortal Sonnet 73 o Takes the concept of love and links it to the passage of time o Quatrain 1 – the speaker compares himself to the time at the end of the year o Line 1 “Or none” – means death o Line 2 “Hang” at the end of the line hangs at the end of the line like a leaf o Line 3 about a church o Line 4 “bare ruined choirs” vs “sweet birds sang” o Quatrain 2 – compares himself to dying of light at the end of the day o Line 1 – rhythm is fading and falling like the light o Line 2 – “by and by black” alliteration o Line 3 – night is equivalent to death o Quatrain 3 – compares himself to a dying fire o Couplet – addresses the reader “shift” o From a season of the year – to a time of day – to something smaller o Mood of elegy / death “elegiac” Sonnet 116 o Examines love and the passage of time and how time effects love o How love can overcome passions o Quatrain 1 o Borrows language from the marriage service “let me not to the marriage of true minds admit impediments” o This type of love does not change or alter because of marriage o Does not change with physical distance o It is not dependent on passion o It does not change even if someone is unfaithful o Quatrain 2 – rhyme words are mark / shaken / bark / taken o All sexual words, orgasm (shaken), bark and mark are part of the female body o The lover is guided by love when he is on a ship o The love is the star o Quatrain 3 o Love does not crumble or disappear by the passage of time / beauty / youth “loves not times fool” o Figure of line 2 -> sickle of time rhythm (like a clock tick) o “Love alters” tells us the poem is coming to an end o Rhythm of the fourth line has many unstressed syllables o Doom = judgment day / the end of time for the individual o Couplet – Prove me wrong o Assertion of will o Irrational argument closure o Links love to the passage of time and the fear of death o Reason links human beings to the angels -> beneath it in the lower part of the mind is the will, which we take for granted o Role of the will is to exercise the demands of reason over the appetites and passions o Reason is the rider, will is the reins, the horse is the appetite / passions o Precision of sonnets -> extraordinarily moving power when read correctly Tuesday, November 12, 2013 Poetry Workshop ­ Assume that the writer knows what they’re doing – everything has meaning ­ If a story is being told its spoken by the narrator ­ In lyric poems there is not as much guidance ­ Read a poem out loud to yourself first ­ Poetry is meant to be heard more than just read ­ Ask yourself -> is this poem written in a traditional form ­ Is this poem setting up a contrast (Petrarchan Sonnet) o Associated with conceit and metaphor, love, natural world, objectifying female ­ Shakespearean sonnet ­ If a poem is heavily rhymed -> chance are it is a poem that endorses order and reason ­ If the poem is written in free or loosened verse chances are it is about freedom in some way ­ Identify the tropes and schemes in it Thursday, November 14, 2013 CHRISTIAN – HUMANISM (faith – reason)  Hyphen; existential anxiety; don’t completely fit together Combination of faith and sense of wanting to be redeemed Reason aligned with moral and physical values Human reason has the ability to solve problems “TRUST GOD, but tie up your camel” • Reason places humans above animals o Ability to speak and understand • Adam and Eve  human reason compromised o No WILL • Beneath…The will is our ability to resist o Channel to divine • Below… Passions and appetites o Under belly of system o Most susceptible to temptation and become ‘unruly’ • Reason CONTROLS will CONTROLS appetites METAPHYSICAL CONCEIT Dazzle people with your wit, knowledge, and intelligence • Took the patrician conceit and extended it and focused on metaphysical concerns 1. All about me, but drawing on outside issues 2. Tied up with creating a personal style 3. Inward Master Concerns: big issues appealing to specific writing Renaissance: discovery of the world and discovery of people Steeped in love of knowledge, reason and innovation John Donne: loves paradox, riddle and anything that strengthens our understanding - Relationship between theology, sexuality, the body HOLY SONNET 14 (Batter my Heart): Donne • Rhyme scheme: ABBAABBA CDCEDE o Lines 4 and 8 have periods  divides into quatrains • First Quatrain: God as tinker (mends broken pots) o Soul/heart of speaker needs to be mended • Second Quatrain: female as a town, sees the town has been taken over by evil/Satin but SHOULD be ruled by God o The city has been compromised • Profoundly self centered piece o Use of religious patterns  Marriage to God is pure and innocent • LOVE POEM TO GOD A VALEDICTION FORBIDDING MOURNING: Keats • He and his wife have a marriage of the mind • Their love can withstand physical separation o Survive temptations o Ideal love: ABOVE the world • STANZAS 1-2: leaving a dying world (Donne leaving wife) • STANZAS 3-6: various types of movement in the physical world • STANZAS 7-9: metaphysical conceit  their love is a compass • Poem starts with as  simile • “And whisper to their souls to go” o Soft and gentle sounds • “Makes me end where I began” o Came from God, return to God o Return to place of beginning (womb; sexual) • A cocky display of wit o Very showoffish • Emphasis of sexual and religious Monday, November 17, 2013 The Flea: John Donne Metaphysical: physics of physics Paradox: statement which contradicts itself but might be true Speaker: male Addressed: woman Third object: the flea  Convince lover to give into intentions  Being bitten by flea is more serious than sex Me…thee…our… POETRY TEACHES US HOW TO READ Tuesday, November 19, 2013 REASON: King WILL: Aristocracy APPETIES: Commoners 1485 RENAISSANCE  AGE OF REASON 1789 Henry VII French Revolution • “All nature is but art, unknown to thee” o Doesn’t appear to be order o Under divine control • Evil gradually displaced by good o One truth is clear: whatever is, is right • Emphasis on style, balance and symmetry o Greek architecture vs. Gothic architecture • Prefers couplets over symmetrical sonnets • IMMANUEL KANT: Imagination is the tool that unifies things  “prime agent of all human perception” o Ideas of external world are projections o Imagination is the same thing that invented the world o Human imagination is a version of divine imagination • “I have said that poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility” (NA 1554) o Emphasizing the enjoyable side of the mind  Moods, feelings pleasures, passions, enjoyment RENAISSANCE: objectivity and reason and symmetry and proportion  To  ROMANTICISM: imagination and subjectivity and individuality and freedom Composed upon Westminster Bridge (WORDSWORTH) • Leaving to France • Romantics dislike city o Artificial, full of disease o Wordsworth sees London as beautiful • Nothing like London • Judges your soul (and worthiness) by sensitivity NOT reason • Devine rapture  prayerful o Petrarchan, Personal, Felt • LOVE POEM KEATS: • Knew he had tuberculosis  that he was dying • Friends pooled money to take him to England • “Here lies one whose name was writ in water” (GRAVESTONE) • Had a passionate relationship with a young woman, Fanny Brawne When I have fears that I may cease to be • Shakespearean sonnet • Looks to night sky and finds inspiration • Romance AND Chance don’t ‘strictly’ rhyme o Bad reviews killed Keats • Moves from harvest to sky to supernatural o More and more abstract  Less concrete • Long vowel sounds indicate ‘seriousness’  stretch out • Short ‘I’ and ‘T’ sounds • Emphasis on alone and nothingness (only 2 syllable words) • NOT A RENAISSANCE POEM o Self-centered poem o Romantic, invested in imagination and emotion • Puts emphasis on the divine  magic, chance Monday, November 25, 2013 SHE DWELT UPON THE UNTRODDEN WAYS: Wordsworth • Rhyme: ABAB CDCD EFEF • Line break: “--“ in the middle • Speaker: male  me • Addressed: Lucy (muse)  obscure • Geography of place  person (relationship of place) • “she”  “me” (pa
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